Monday, October 31, 2022
Sunday, October 2, 2022
And finally after a break of 3 years, I am here to post something again!! I guess there is always something special in the air around Navaratri time that makes me come back here and reinvigorate my passion for music and divinity. When I blogged the last time in September 2019, I definitely did not think it would take me 3 years to come back. I actually still cannot believe it has taken me that long but well, here I am trying to muse and amuse.
A lot has happened in these 3 years, including a pandemic that changed all of our lives and retirement of some true sporting legends such as MS Dhoni, Serena Williams and Roger Federer. During this time, I moved from Luxembourg to Berlin and changed 2 jobs. Personally, I have also grown a bit more wiser (or so I think) and definitely have a few more white hairs on my head. While I might not have published anything in this forum, I believe I have only gone more deeper in my pursuit of music. So much so that I do feel music is always there within me, an extension of myself and a lifelong companion, accompanying me through happiness and sorrow alike.
Without blabbering on any further, I will jump into today's composition. When I left off 3 years ago, I had said my next post would be one on Goddess Kamakshi again and so here I am writing about this hauntingly beautiful, short and pretty rare composition of dIkshitar called SRngAra rasa manjarIM in the 72nd rAgAnga rAga, rasamanjari (Venkatamakhin school's equivalent of rasikapriya). This was composed by dIkshitar in praise of Goddess "Bangaru Kamakshi" at the temple in Tanjavur, the same Goddess who was propitiated extensively by Sri Shyama Sastri, the other member of the trinity. The name of the temple itself indicates that the idol of Kamakshi is made of pure gold though it appears black due to the fact that it is covered with punugu, a black fragrant substance. The idol of Kamakshi here is in standing posture holding a parrot in her right hand. Though this temple is small with one prakaram, it is venerated as one of the fifty-one shakti peetams. Going a bit into history, actually this idol was in the Kamakshi temple in Kanchipuram. But when there was invasion by Moghul kings, this precious golden idol was secretly brought to this place by the chief temple priest, father of Shyama Sastri in 1786. Later a temple was constructed here thanks to the Maratha kings of Tanjavur and Sri Shyama Sastri being the son of this temple priest, himself became the main archakar and sang many beautiful hymns in praise of the Goddess.
Destiny brought dIkshitar close to Shyama Sastri and Goddess kAmakshi as he was invited to Tanjavur to teach music to the Tanjavur Quartet and he chose to live on West Main Street and became a neighbour and close friend of Syama Sastri. The two, along with dIkshitar’s younger brother Chinnaswami collaborated in the creation of three caraNams for an incomplete shri ranjani varnam of Ramaswami Dikshitar. It is also well documented that Subbaraya Sastri, the son of Syama Sastri was a disciple of dIkshitar which shows in the quality of his compositions. Goddess Bangaru Kamakshi being a famed deity of Tanjavur, besides being the object of his good friend Syama Sastri’s worship, dIkshitar composed quite a few compositions on this deity during his stay at tanjAvur.
It is also very interesting to note that dIkshitar's composition on the 1st rAgAnga rAga (kanakAmbari kArunyAmrita lahari in the rAga kanakAmbari) and the 72nd and last rAgAnga rAga (the composition I am writing about today) were both composed in praise of Goddess bangAru kAmAkshi in tanjAvur. In this composition, apart from using the rAga mudra to describe the devi, dIkshitar also brings in the number 72 and states that the Goddess delights in the 72 rAgAnga rAgas. This small samshTi caraNam composition is fully composed in the dvitIya vibhakti with many other beautiful aspects that I will try to delve into below.
SrI kAmAkshIM gaurIM
Srita jana kalpa vallarIM cintayE(a)ham
ananga kusumAdi Sakti priya-karIM dvi-saptati -
rAgAnga rAga mOdinIM
matanga bharata vEdinIM mangaLa dAyinIM
rasika pungava guruguha jananIm
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Today's composition, avyAja karunA kaTAKSi always evokes strong emotions in me, as it reminds me of the good old times that we, as a music group, nAdOpAsana used to enjoy and share together in late 2000s. Continuing with the post on kAnCi kSEtra and Goddess kAmAkSi from last week, I thought it would be a good follow up post and it struck me that may be I can do a "kAmAkSi" series before moving on to another kSEtra thereby making this blog a pilgrimage tour in itself :). Before jumping into the composition, I will narrate a small incident of how I came across this composition for the first time. I vividly remember it was a winter evening in Michigan back in 2006, when we (Hari and myself) stumbled on a beautiful lecture demonstration by the great research scholar, Prof. SR Janakiraman. In that lec dem, he explained the structure of sAlanganATa, an upAnga janya of mAyAmALavagowLa (MMG) and burst into this small but powerful composition on dIkshitar. It was so beautiful on so many dimensions that Hari and I both kind of gave up, got emotional, and played it over and over again to enjoy the beauty. We then got on a call with our dear friend Shreekrishna (SK) and made him listen to share our joy. It turned out to be a beautiful evening, as it set the tone for us to delve deeper into other compositions on MMG and its plethora of janya rAgAs that dIkshitar has composed extensively in.
A word or two about the rAga and the composition itself before jumping in. sAlanga nAta is a rare, upAnga janya rAga of the 15th meLa, MMG. The ArOhaNa is a straightforward srmpds (similar to malahari). The avarOhaNa is where the matter is. While sangIta sampradAya pradarshini gives the avarOhaNa scale as sampUrNa (Sndpmgrs), the Sndp phrase does not exist and is instead replaced by SnSdp. This structure is well-established in the gIta prabandhas and is strictly adhered to in this composition by dIkshitar too. Similarly, in the descending purvAnga phrase, mgrs is also not very prominent and is replaced by mgmrs. This makes the structure symmetric on the descent and also adds an extra beauty to the rAga and this composition.
The composition itself is a simple, small samASTi caraNam kriti and like many of his other compositions, dIkshitar embellishes it with a beautiful citta swaram at the end which helps to clearly establish the structure and the significant prayOgas of this rAga. He also shows his brilliance in word play by bringing in the rAga mudra in the caraNam effortlessly while conveying a very important aspect of the Goddess and mAya/delusion in general. The whole composition is written in sambOdhana pratama vibhakti, directly appealing to the Goddess. Starting with the pallavi,
avyAja karuNA kaTAkSi aniSam mAmava kAmAkSi
dIkshitar sings "O kAmAkSi! The one whose glances ("kaTAkSi") bestow unconditional/unbiased ("avyAjA") mercy/compassion ("karuNA")! Please always ("aniSam") protect me ("mAmava")".
In this simple pallavi, dIkshitar appeals to the merciful/compassionate side of Goddess kAmAkSi and seeks protection on behalf of all humanity. As the folklore goes, this is a very important KSEtra for Srividya upAsakAs, as the mEru in this temple is made of sAligrAma and is supposed to have been installed by sage durvAsa, a primordially renowned Srividya upAsakA himself. However, over time, due to neglect and rise of more inequality and greed with kali yuga, kAmAkSi became a ugra (angry) version of the Lalita tripurasundari, that led to droughts and damage of the land surrounding this temple. It is believed that the great advaitin, Adi Shankara, himself pacified the Goddess and reinstalled the shrI cakra in this temple thereby making Goddess kAmAkSi the epitome of mercy and compassion.
dIkshitar hence appeals to this side of the Goddess to protect him and all of us who sing the dEvi's praises along with him. It is also worthy to note that dIkshitar directly borrows the beginning words of the composition from Lalita sahasranAmam, where tripurasundari is described as "avyAja karuNA mUrti". Musically, dIkshitar establishes the gAndAra-nishAda varjya ArOhaNam in the pallavi itself with the opening phrase of "RMP" at "avyAjA" followed by the beautiful avarOhaNam of "dpmgmrs" at "karunA kaTAkSi".
Moving on to the caraNam,
ravyAdi nava grahOdayE rasAlanga nATaka kriyE
divyAlamkrtANgASriyE dInAvana guruguha priyE
savyApa-savya mArgasthE sadA namastE SukahastE
dIkshitar begins the caraNam by describing the Goddess as "The one who is the origin/one responsible for the rising ("udayE") of Sun ("ravi") and the other ("Adi") nine celestial bodies ("navagraha")". Since kAmAkSi is the amSa of Goddess tripurasundari, the ruler of all the three worlds, this is indeed an apt description both from a physical as well as from a celestial standpoint.
He then demonstrates his musical and lyrical brilliance by slipping in the rAga mudra, while describing the Goddess as "the one who is the enabler/creator ("kriyE") of the drama ("nATaka") comprising of ("alanga") all the different rasAs/emotions". This is probably the most beautiful part of the composition as he weaves in the rAga mudra effortlessly while conveying a very deep meaning. dIkshitar seems to refer to the whole creation as a cosmic drama, born out of delusion and related to human emotions of the navarasAs. He then refers to the Goddess as the creator/conductor of this whole drama, while in the process, slipping in the rAga mudra, making you once again wonder how dIkshitar does this. Does he choose a rAga for the composition while thinking of what to compose or does it happen the other way around? After thinking about this a lot in the past (as there are so many beautiful compositions which tend to create the same thought in your head), it seems to be a symbiotic process, where the whole composition is built, not piece by piece, but as one single integral product from the very beginning, with the whole composition arriving in his thoughts as a finished product before bursting forth in a single outflow. This is the only possible explanation to such brilliance.
Moving on, dIkshitar continues to describe the Goddess as "the one whose body ("aNga") shines ("ASriyE") decorated by the divine ("divya") ornaments ("alamkrta") and is the favorite ("priyE") of Lord Guruguha, the protector of the destitute ("dInAvana")". This line, establishes the centre/backbone of the small caraNam, acting as a bridge/platform for dIkshitar to jump into the madyamakAla sAhitya.
dIkshitar finishes the composition by describing the Goddess as "the one who represents the right and left/prohibited paths ("mArga"), "savya and apa-savya" of upAsana. Salutations to you ("namastE"), always ("sadA"), the one who holds a parakeet ("Suka") in Her hand ("hastE")". The savya and apa-savya paths that dIkshitar alludes to here, corresponds with the dakSinAcAra and vAmAcAra forms of worshiping the divine respectively. The savya/dakSINAcAra way of worshiping refers to spiritual, orthodox practices of following one of the well-established yogic margas (karma, bhakti, gnAna) to unite with the divine. The apa-savya/vAmAcAra way of worshiping is the more darker, tAntric, unorthodox version, used more to attain special powers/siddhis and utilize for personal power/manipulation of the elements rather than seeking divine union. While the divine energy is again unconditional and available to both forms of worship, needless to say, the former way of worship is most preferred and hence practiced traditional. The latter, is more gross and prohibited as it restricts the practitioner to the physical realm and does not help in transcending/uniting with the divine.
Coming back to the composition, musically, my favorite phrases in the caraNam are "dSrmg" at "rasAlanga" and the predominantly mandira prayoga of "sdmpmppds" at "guruguha priyE". dIkshitar rounds it off nicely with a beautiful citta swaram that clearly establishes the rAga svarUpa. The citta swaram gives goosebumps with some amazing prayOgas with dIkshitar saving the best for the last as it ends with the whole avarOhaNam in its entirety as "sdpmgmrs" before looping back beautifully into the pallavi.
Overall, an amazing, amazing composition, probably the only one in this rAga and thereby requiring extra attention/care. We need to preserve and pass on this composition to our future generations so that sAlanga nAta as a raga is available for posterity and this composition continues to withstand time and tradition and serves as a strong demonstration of how this rAga is unique and needs to be handled. Lastly, if you have not heard this composition, please google and find Prof SRJ's version, enjoy the beauty and learn it. Signing off for today, with the hope of coming back with yet another post on Goddess kAmAkSi next weekend. Until then, wish you a great musical week ahead!!
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Today, I will write about one of my most favorite morning compositions of dIkshitar, nIrakjAkSi kAmAkSi in rAga hindOLam set to rUpaka tALa. Before I jump into the composition itself, a few words about the rAga, the importance of this particular composition and the significance of this kSEtra to set the stage and create the complete context which will help us enjoy and understand the composition much better.
hindOLam is predominantly a north indian rAga, has its roots in hindustani music and goes by the name mAlkauns. This pentatonic scale subsequently transcended into the South Indian music scheme with purandaradAsa composing the first carnatic composition in this rAga. The beautiful audava structure without rishaba and panchama automatically yields a symmetry to this rAga, which is probably the greatest hallmark of this scale and the main reason why it is so pleasant and mellifluous to the ear. Capable of conveying both shringAra and bhakti rasAs, the raga is attributed to vasanta ritu and is best experienced in the mornings. Again because of the symmetry, the rAga can be subjected to Graha bedham, yielding 4 other major/beautiful pentatonic scales of mOhanam, suddha sAvEri, udayaravicandrikA and madyamAvati.
While tyAgarAja's sAmajavaragamanA is probably the most famous composition in this rAga, dIkshitar weaves his own magic in his three compositions showcasing both the carnatic as well as the hindustani aspects of this rAga thereby paying tribute to its true roots. He handles govardana girIsham and sarasvati vidhiyuvati in typical carnatic hindOLam style with gamakAs and movement-laden prayOgas. However, in this particular kriti of nIrajAkSi kAmAksI, he constructs the composition in a dhrupad/north indian style, aptly supported by the rUpaka tALa, with the rAga's scale itself being used purely with more flat notes, relatively lesser gamakAs and finally rounding off with a citta swara that again has prayOgas supporting the hindustAni style of swaraprasthAras. In other words, this seems to be a conscious experiment by dIkshitar to showcase the origins of the rAga while at the same time, interweaving it into traditional carnatic music once again showing his musical genius.
Briefly explaining the significance of this kSEtra, Goddess kAmAkSi (whose name literally translates to "one whose eyes evoke desire") resides in kAnchipuram and is considered the ultimate form of LalitA tripurasundari, whose name resonates in Lalita sahasranAmAm. At this kSEtra, the Goddess is seated in the majestic padmAsana posture, signifying links to yoga and prosperity, instead of the traditional standing pose, holding sugarcane bow, flowers, lasso (pAsha) and goad (ankusha). There are no other Goddess temples in kAnchipuram showing the importance of this particular temple, with links to the great Adi Sankara who is believed to have calmed down the dEvi from her earlier ugra swarUpa and re-instated the shrI cakrA at this temple. dIkshitar being a shrI vidyA upAsaka, aptly highlights all of these significant features in his composition, bringing in the nava-Avaranas and using references such as "nIla cikura", "tripura" and "gaurI" which are directly borrowed from LalitA sahasranAmam.
With the context set, I will start with the pallavi of this composition.
nIraja-akshi kAmAkshi nIrada cikurE tripurE
Setting the tone for the entire composition, written in the eighth vibhakti (sambOdhana pratama), dIkshitar directly addresses the Goddess as "O lotus-eyed ("nIraja-akshi") Goddess kAmAkshi! The one with tresses ("cikurE") akin to dark water-bearing clouds ("nIrada")! The one who is the Queen of the three worlds ("tripurE")! (Protect me!!)"
In my opinion, the pallavi is probably the highest point of this composition. dIkshitar starts off on a high, kicking it off with swarAkshara "nI" in "nI"rajAkshi. He then beautifully sketches a waterfall by using the avarOhana to land the typical "gMgs" phrase at "kAmAkshi" which more importantly, sets up the stage for the knock-out punch, a mandira sthAyi swarAkshara "nI"rada. He then uses "sns" at "cikurE", followed by "Mgsgm" at "tripurE" which gives the dhrupad effect of hindustAni music and helps loop back to "nI"rajAkshi".
One can't appreciate the pallavi more here with the beautiful swaraprasthAras and the kAla pramAna that dIkshitar sets for this majestic composition. He also uses terms such as "nIrada cikura" and "tripurA" which are direct references to lalita sahasranAma. One should also observe the usage of flat notes in the pallavi, not your typical hindOLa prayOgas. It is apparent, that the usage of flat notes is conscious throughout the composition, clearly dIkshitar showing his prowess and making an exhibition of how a north indian rAga can be used for a carnatic composition. This also creates a sense of calm and peace throughout the entire composition, as he traverses the octaves with no fuss, little gamakAs, as if a ship sailing the waves of the calm Pacific ocean.
Moving on to the anupallavi,
SAradA ramA nayanE sArasa candra-AnanE
vArija pAdE varadE tAraya mAM tatva padE
dIkshitar describes the Goddess as "The one who has Goddesses sarasvati ("SAradA") and Lakshmi ("ramA") as Her eyes ("nayanE")" physically describing how Goddess kAmAkshi is flanked on either sides by these two Goddesses and who they rule the three worlds together in unity. He continues to describe the beauty of Goddess kAmakshi by calling Her as "the one whose face ("Anana") is as beautiful as the swan ("sArasa") and as radiant as the autumnal moon ("candra")".
He then continues to describe the merciful and compassionate aspects of the Goddess by describing Her as "the one who has lotus-like ("vArija") feet ("pAdE") adept at granting boons ("varadE")". He then requests the Goddess to "protect and help him ("mAm") transcend ("tAraya") to the other side by showing the truth/essence ("tatva") of which She is the authority ("padE")".
Musically, he starts off the anupallavi with a serene shadja, again creating swarAkshara at "SA"rada flowing down to the gAndara and ending with madhyama at naya"nE". He then lilts from madhyama directly to nishAda at "sA"rasa before coming down to the flat dhaivata which is what brings the utmost beauty of this interpretation of hindOLa. Throughout the composition, dIkshitar consciously avoids the straight "gmdn" prayOga typical of hindOLa and always uses "gmndn", thereby bringing in that additional beauty of the north indian version.
As a final embellishment, dIkshitar unleashes a beautiful citta swaram that is hard to describe in words. The prayOgas once again extract the maximum possible beauty of this rAga, transcending all the three sthAyis with such grace and aplomb that all one can do is just relish and experience the sancArAs he exposes. The citta swara finally culminates with "sgs, ndmggmm" setting the platform to loop back to the swarAkshara "nI"rajAkshi, thereby completing the magic thread that he wove in the anupallavi.
dIkshitar then moves on to the caraNam, which again starts with a sedate shadja setting the ground for a crescendo.
gaurI hindOLa dyuti hIra maNi-maya-AbharaNE
Sauri virinci vinuta Siva Sakti-maya nava-AvaraNE
nArImaNi-Adi-arcita nava nAtha-antaHkaraNE
sUri jana saMsEvita sundara guru guha karaNE
dIkshitar starts off the caraNam with a beautiful "sm" phrase with a direct reference to Lalita sahasranAmam by using the word "gaurI" which literally translates to "one who is white/golden in complexion". He then brings in the rAga mudra by describing the Goddess as "the one who is bedecked with ornaments ("AbharaNE") that is filled with ("maya") resplendent ("dyuti") diamonds ("hIra") and other gems ("maNi")". Hindola also literally translates to "ornamental swing/cradle" and this line can be interpreted as dIkshitar comparing the Goddess's necklace/ornaments to a beautiful swing/cradle.
He then describes the Goddess as "the one who is worshipped ("vinuta") by Lord Vishnu ("Sauri") and Brahma ("virinci")". Dikshitar then begins to bring in the esoteric references to Sri chakra (which, as I had earlier mentioned was re-established in this shrine by Adi Shankara himself) by describing the Goddess as "the one who resides in the nine realms ("nava-AvaraNE") of the Sri cakra which houses Shiva and Shakti". He then begins the madhyamakAla sahitya by referring to the traditional worship of the Goddess by women seeking to attain purity and greatness by worshipping Her on Fridays and describes Her as "one who is worshipped ("arcita") by gems ("maNi") among women ("nArI")".
He then brings in references to the navanAthas sampradaya, the school of thought which believes in the nine saints, beginning with the trinity themselves, who spread the philosophy of one ultimate truth. dIkshitar describes the Goddess as "the one who resides in the hearts ("antaHkaraNE") of the navanAthas" and as "the one who is worshipped ("saMsEvita") by men of knowledge/wisdom ("sUri jana"). dIkshitar concludes the madhyama kAla sAhitya by using his composer mudra and describes the Goddess as "the one who is responsible for the creation ("karaNE") of the handsome ("sundara") Lord Guruguha".
To complete the structure, dIkshitar once again employs the citta swaram (sometimes sung in second/third speed) to once again loop back to the beginning of the pallavi. He again employs some amazing prayOgas in the caraNam, my favourites being Sauri virinci where he uses "nsdm gmns" and the lilting "snsnsmgs" at "nArimanyA". Even if you have listened to this composition before, I would highly recommend you try and listen to this again after reading this post. I am sure you will be able to enjoy it that bit more and probably enjoy it as much as I did :).
On that wonderful note, I will close this post. I hope to ride this wave of new found enthusiasm and pick up another majestic composition to post next weekend. Until then, wish you a great week ahead and hopefully a week in which you the get the chance to indulge a bit more in music :). Shri gurubhyO namah!!
Sunday, December 2, 2018
While the past few weeks have been "heavy" from a work perspective, it has also been dotted with some very nice happenings as I have started reconnecting not only with my blog space but also with quite a few of my cherished friends who, more than being just friends have been a constant source of inspiration. Last week, I spoke to my dearest friend Shreekrishna, a fellow contributor on this blog and one of the most knowledgeable and sharpest musical brains ever. Even though we reconnected after 5 long years and realized how much we probably missed talking to each other, I felt like nothing had changed and we pretty much took off from where we had left off. And of course, needless to say, the conversation reinvigorated some beautiful thoughts from the mid-2000s including singing Shri kAntimatIm at the Galveston beach, while sitting on rocks amidst the waves, dedicating this song to the majestic Atlantic Ocean and what we called as "hemavati on the rocks" :).
And this was followed by a few e-mail exchanges with our dear Bala Sir, from whom, I had the privilege of learning metallurgical sciences at NIT, Trichy and who has been a friend, philosopher and guide for the past 15 odd years. He and his daughter Varshita's music are the real reasons behind today's post on this beautiful composition. So, thank you Bala sir and Varshi :). The composition that I am going to write about, pAhi mAm ratnAcalanAyaka was composed by dIkshitar in the early 1800s at the auspicious Shiva shrine of Ratnagiri at Iyermalai/vAtpokki. I first heard this composition in 2006 from an old recording in which shri DK Pattammal had rendered the kriti so beautifully. As always, it was love and reverence at first listen, as I was dumbstruck with so many observations that I possibly cannot describe with sufficient adjectives here. Needless to say, I listened to this kriti probably non-stop for a few weeks, uncovered another version rendered by Musiri and did my own research on pretty much every syllable that dIkshitar has used in this composition to understand and fully appreciate the depth and the musical import of this masterpiece, some of which, I hope to share in today's post.
Before jumping into the composition, a few words about the temple, its history and folklore. As the name suggests, this temple sits beautifully perched on top of a hill in Karur district along the kAvEri river and is believed to be 1300 years old making it one of the oldest and most significant saivite shrines in Tamil Nadu. The main deities of Lord Shiva in the form of ratnagirIswarar and Parvati in the form of Goddess araLakESi reside on top of the hill and only with ardent devotion can one endure the arduous climb of 1000+ steps to get to the top and get darshan. The temple is steeped in tradition and history with first references to this shrine in the holy saivite treatise of "Thevaram" by ThirunAvukkarasar in 7th century AD. It is also believed that the sage Agastya worshipped Lord Shiva at this holy place.
The temple also has multiple specialties that even dIkshitar references in this composition. Viewed form different locations, the hill resembles various forms of Lord Shiva and Parvathy with temple itself being said to be in the form of the pranava mantra (Om) and Lord Shiva being seen as a form of the Shri Chakra here. The main deity is surrounded by eight rock temples inside the main mandapam and in combination with the main lingam in the sanctum sanctorum, these appear spectacularly like a garland of nine gems. The Lingam itself is tall, is believed to be a svayambhu (originated naturally by itself) and has a prominent scar at the top, which folklore attributes to the result of King AryarAjan having cut it with a sword, hence giving this temple the other name of "vAtkoppi" as it is referenced in Thevaram.
The folklore associated with the king's story results in another tradition that dIkshitar sings about in this composition about members of the Arya community providing water to anoint the Lingam here. It is believed that King Aryarajan lost his crown that was studded with nine gems and he came to Iyermalai and prayed to Shiva. Shiva came in the guise of an old Brahmin and asked the king to fill a big bowl called Kopparai with water from the Kaveri. Despite the king bringing water from the river and trying to fill the bowl repeatedly, the bowl would strangely never become full even after pouring water endlessly. The angry king is then believed to have taken his sword and threw it on the Brahmin, who immediately showed his swarupam, blessed the king, gave his crown back and turned into the form of the lingam here (and hence the scar on the lingam). Till date, this fascinating tradition continues with someone from the village going to the river, which is eight kilometers away, carrying the water all the way, climbing up the hill and finally emptying it into a large cauldron kept beside the Linga. With all this background, I will now move on to the composition itself, structured fully in sambodhana pratama, the eighth vibhakti.
pAhi mAm ratnAcalanAyaka bhaktajana shubhapradAyaka
dIkshitar starts the composition by seeking refuge and singing "Oh Lord of the jewel ("ratna") mountain ("acala"), please protect ("pAhi") me ("mAm")". He describes the compassionate and merciful nature of the Lord in this kSEtra by referring to Him as "the one who bestows ("pradAyaka") welfare and good fortune ("shubha") on his devotees ("bhaktajana")".
Just like how the initial steps leading to the hill top of this temple, the pallavi starts off with a simple gradient to help the listeners ease into the majestic mukhAri that follows. While he establishes the kSEtra of the composition in the pallavi itself, dIkshitar also clearly establishes the rAga bhAva of mukhAri musically with the opening phrases of "pdpMGR" at "pAhi mAm" and "sndSRM pmdd" at "rathnAcala nAyaka". Straight off the bat, dIkshitar starts of with the swara sAhityam of "pA" hi hinting that something more beautiful is coming in this composition. Also, in line with the folklore and history associated with this temple, the Lord is believed to have shown extreme compassion and patience and blessed King AryarAjan even after his devotee threw a sword on His face in a fit of anger. dIkshitar again emphasizes this characteristic of the Lord in the pallavi by referring to Him as one who gives welfare to his devotees. A final comment on the pallavi would be in reference to how beautifully the rhythm scheme of the retta kaLai Adi tALa fits in with the prAsa rhyme scheme that dIkshitar establishes in the pallavi, which sort of lays the foundation for this masterpiece to take shape in the anupallavi.
Moving on to the anupallavi,
muktiprada nata viriHnci mAdhava
rOhiNIsha ravi vahninayana
bhavarOgaharaNa nipuNatara caraNa shiva
dIkshitar continues to establish the physical precincts of the temple complex by referring to the Lord as "the divine husband ("varadhava") who is enchanted/smitten by ("mOhaja") Goddess araLakEshi and the one who bestows ("mukti") salvation ("mukti") and is worshipped ("nata") by Brahma ("viriHnci") and Vishnu ("mAdhava")". Goddess pArvati is given Her own shrine in the temple, midway along the walk up the hill. She takes the form of a beautiful Goddess with curly hair and hence Her name of one with the curly ("araLa") hair ("kEshi"), referred to by the locals in tamizh as Surumbar Kuzhali.
dIkshitar then proceeds to start the madhyamakAla sAhitya referring to the Lord's three eyes and describing Him as "the one who has the sun ("ravi"), moon ("rOhinIsha") and fire ("vahni") as his eyes ("nayana")". dIkshitar again beautifully cherry picks his words here showing his mastery over the language. For example, to keep the prAsa and rhyme scheme intact with "mOhaja" and bhava"rOga", dIkshitar uses the word "rOhinIsha" to refer to the moon as the consort of the star Rohini and this reference deserves a parentheses here which I will delve into. In Hindu mythology, there are multiple legends surrounding the moon and dIkshitar uses one such reference here. The moon is always known to have a direct influence on the mind, triggering lustful thoughts and hence dIkshitar sings candram bhaja mAnasa ("Oh mind!! medidate on the moon") in the navagraha kriti. In one of these mythological portrayal of the moon, he impregnates tAra, the wife of Brihaspati (planet Jupiter), giving birth to Budha (planet mercury). This upsets Brihaspati, who declares a war leading to the dEvas intervening and returning tAra to Brihaspati. The moon is said to have had an emotional breakdown because he couldn't satisfy his lustful feelings and so he pursued Daksha's 27 daughters to curb his ever-growing desires for sexual union. Hence the Indian monthly calendar has the 27 stars associated with the 27 days splitting the waxing and waning cycle of the moon. After marrying all the 27 daughters, the moon is said to have preferred only Rohini (one of the stars) among all of His 27 wives and dIkshitar uses this reference here to describe the moon. The other 26 wives become upset and complain to their father, Daksha who then curses the moon for His terrible sins. To overcome this sin, the moon becomes a staunch devotee of Lord Shiva, who partially releases him from the curse by giving the moon a place in His Head.
Coming back to the composition, dIkshitar nicely rounds off the anupallavi by describing the Lord as "the one whose feet ("caraNa") are incomparably skilled ("nipuNa-tara") at destroying ("haraNa") the disease ("rOga") of wordly existence ("bhava")". These words are in reference to the great sages who have attained salvation and relief from the world existence by worshipping the Lord at this shrine such as appar, thirunAvukkarasar (the one who composed thevAram) and sage Agastya who is known to have visited this shrine on his way to podhigai malai.
Final comments on the musical beauty that dIkshitar weaves through the anupallavi. The unique phrase to begin the anupallavi, "pdNdp" at "mOhaja" kind of leaves a buzz in the listener's ears, generating a feeling of smitten-ness that dIkshitar uses to describe the Lord Himself in these lines. Personally for me, on many occasions I have felt that the sound that this phrase generates feels like a deep humming sound that a bee might generate when wafting through the curly locks of Goddess araLakEShi here. The madhyamakAla is again mesmerizing with phrases such as "ndsrm gr" at "rOhinIsha ravi" and "mpSS ndp" at "bhavarOga haraNa" before concluding the anupallvi with "rm" at "Shiva" and beautifully using this as a bridge to loop back to the swara sahityam of "pA"hi at the beginning of the pallavi. In the interest of the length of this post, I will move on to the caraNam.
sadyOjAtAdi paHncamukhAri-SaDvargarahita hRtsaHncAra
avidyOdaya viyadAdi prapaHnca vikalpAtIta tatva vicAra
vidyAtmaka shrI cakrAkAra vicitra navaratna girivihAra
gadyAnuviddha padyAdivinuta gaHNgAdhara Agama sAra
adyApyAryavamshajAta tUryajAti bhRtAkhaNDa kAvErI-
nadyOdakAbhiSikta sharIra anAdi guruguha kumAra mArahara
Just like many other of his kritis, dIkshitar kind of "escalates" and takes the composition to a whole new paradigm in the caraNam and leaves you dumbfounded in the process. He starts off the composition with a Grand Slam Home Run by describing the Lord as "the one who has five faces ("paHncamukha") starting with sadyOjAta etc ("Adi")" and as "the one who resides ("saHncAra") in the hearts ("hRt") bereft ("rahita") of the six ("SaD") categories ("varga") of enemies ("ari")". While it is impossible to do justice to describing the beauty of this one line in this composition except probably prostrating at the brilliance of dIkshitar. This line has to be probably in the top 10 usages of hidden rAga mudras that dIkshitar has used among all his compositions as he brings out the rAga name split between two words at paHnchamukha-ari SaDvarga while conveying great meaning and depth in the process. He refers to the form of Lord Shiva where He is described as having five faces signifying the five elements and thereby representing the entire universe. The top face is known as Ishana or Sadashiva, who is rarely depicted and governs zenith and the sky ("AkASa"). The east face that is referenced in this composition is Sadyojata or Mahadeva, the regent of the earth ("pritvi"). The west face is Tatpurusha or nandivaktra (the face of Nandi), denoting the wind ("vAyu"). While Vamadeva or Umavaktra (the face of Parvati) faces north and represents water ("varuNa"), aghora or bhairava looks south and denotes fire ("agni").
The brilliance of dIkshitar does not come in just using the five-faced reference but in actually linking it with the reference to the six evils/enemies of the mind and thereby using this combination to produce the rAgamudra. In Hindu theology, arishadvarga are the six enemies of the mind, which are: lust ("kAma"), anger ("krodha"), greed ("lobha"), attachment ("mOha"), pride ("mada") and jealousy ("matsarya"); the negative characteristics of which prevent man from attaining moksha or salvation. Again, in the interest of the length of this post and inability of English words to describe the brilliance of this line, I move on to the next lines of the composition.
dIkshitar continues to describe the Lord as "the one who is beyond the diversities ("vikalpa-atIta") of the universe ("prapaHnca") that results from ignorance ("avidya-udaya"), and is made of the elements starting with space ("viyat-Adi")" and as "the one is the scientific embodiment ("vidyAtmaka") of inquiring ("vicAra") the truth/origin ("tatva")". He continues to describe the Lord as "the one who takes the form ("AkAra") of the Shri Cakra signified ("vihAra") in the resplendent ("vicitra") mountain ("giri") of the nine gems ("navaratna")". As I had mentioned at the beginning of this post, the temple and the mountain structure in itself is supposed to signify the Shri cakra when viewed from above and dIkshitar uses this reference. Here, on a surface level vicitra stands for "resplendent/beautiful". But we can contemplate and come up with a slightly deeper meaning too. The lingam here is a swayambu and it emerges from amidst eight other rocks in the sactum. Hence, the lingam itself becomes the ninth rock and hence it is referred to as navaratnam. In order to differentiate the lingam (the 9th rock) from the other eight rocks, dikshitar has probably chosen the word "vicitra" referring to the lingam as a rock which is different/weird compared to the other eight.
dIkshitar then goes on to describe the Lord as "the one who wears ganges on his head ("gaHNgAdhara"), is the essence ("sAra") of all the scriptures ("Agama") and one who resides in/permeates through ("anuviddha") and is praised/worshipped ("vinuta") by all prose ("gadya") and poetry ("padya")". These lines go together. Since He is the origin of all knowledge in the first place ("Agama sAra"), it only makes sense that He is worshipped and praised by all forms of literature (prose and poetry). Further, the scriptures show high reverence for this temple as it is mentioned in the works of thirunAvukkarasar, appar and the famous tirupugazh by arunagirinathar.
dIkshitar then creates magic in the madhyamakAla sAhitya, invoking the references to the traditional practices carried out in the temple. He writes it in a "pesudo present tense" that actually makes us feel that he is right there narrating this whole thing. He refers to the act of the Lord being bathed by waters of the Kaveri by Brahmins by describing Him as "the one whose form ("sharIra") is bathed ("abhishikta") in the waters of the vast, inexhaustible Kaveri ("akhaNDa kAvEri") river carried by ("bhRta") the ones of the arya vamsa and washed by the brahmins ("turya jAti"), even today ("adya api")". turya jAti here refers to the brAhman priests who eventually perform the abhisheka with the water brought from the river. dIkshitar refers to the brAhmans as turya jAti or as a race born from the fourth state of consciousness (state of silence beyond the state of wakefulness(gross body), dream(subtle astral plane) and dreamless sleep(causal body)). He then completes the composition by bringing in the composer mudra and describing the Lord as "the destroyer ("hara") of cupid ("mAra") and the one whose progeny ("kumAra") is the beginning-less ("anAdi") guruguha".
The caraNam is a one of the most dense, intense and esoteric set of words that we encounter in dIkshitar kritis. A grand theme that seems to run as a single thread throughout the caraNam is the contrasting ends and dichotomy that dIkshitar portrays showcasing his great mastery over the language, perhaps signifying the vicissitudes of human life. Some of these dichotomies being:
1. Specific and Generic: The caraNam is steeped in references that are both generic to Lord Shiva such as "paHNcamukha" and "AgamasAra" as well as being specific to this particular temple such as references to the tradition in the temple, "vicitra navaratna girivihAra".
2. Five Six, pick up the sticks: Using "panHncamukha" (five) and ari"SaD" (six) one after the other, creating a sequence of numbers while at the same time bringing in the rAgamudra in one master stroke.
3. Knowledge and Ignorance: He refers to the Lord using both references to knowledge ("vidyAtmaka") and the lack of it ("avidyOdaya") again showing that the Lord resides in both these dichotomies equally.
4. Prose and Poetry: Apart from the only similarity that both are forms of expression, prose and poetry can't be more distinct and different from each other in structure, emotional content and grammar. However, just like how dIkshitar weaves poetry with prose in each of his compositions, he refers to the Lord also as one who is worshipped by both these different forms of grammar.
5. Beginning and End, Birth and Death: In the final lines of the caraNam, dIkshitar conveys these huge, oxymoron-ic concepts using a combination of four words back to back, while in the process bringing in the composer mudra of guruguha. He describes the Lord as a creator by showing Him as the one who brings about the birth of the beginning-less guruguha while at the same time describes Him as the destroyer who brings an end to cupid.
Musically, the caraNam is again extremely rich as it pretty much exhausts the whole spectrum of prayOgams that mukhAri has to offer. The DKP and the Musiri versions I mentioned capture the beauty of the caraNam in its entirety and I would also recommend listening to this beautiful version rendered by Ramakrishnan Murthy. I wind up my explanation on this composition here and leave it to the listening experience of the readers to transport themselves to an alternate dimension the next time they hear this kriti being rendered by anyone. As I sign off for today, I make a note to myself to visit Iyermalai in my next visit to India and sing this kriti at the abode of Lord Rathnagiriswarar :). In my next post which I target to publish within the next 10 days, based on request from one of my dearest friends, I will write about a beautiful composition on Goddess kAmAkSi which also happens to be one of my favorites as well. Until then, enjoy the beautiful month of mArgazhi :). shrI gurubhyO namah!!
Sunday, November 18, 2018
After a hiatus of four long years, the musical scientist is back with a post :). While I am definitely trying to make a come back to my good old blogging days with today's post, I do not want to stake claim that I am fully back yet, as I have made such claims in the past and have failed miserably to live up to them. But for some reason, it definitely does feel different as I can feel the enthusiasm rush through my veins as I write these words, just like how I used to feel in those golden good old days probably 10 years ago.
So, the reader might wonder, what made me go into hibernation and just disappear off the radar like that? I would attribute it to a combination of many things (primarily professional life) that made me succumb to a banal, mundane lifestyle which further resulted in a lack of time and creative urge to express myself like I used to. In all fairness, it was more of my doing driven by my choices in life than anybody else's. And trust me when I say this, I did try to resuscitate the blog and my creative juices quite a few times in the past 4 years but somehow, I never could get that enthusiasm and love for writing back.
The next question (that I am asking myself), would be what has changed since the last time I blogged and the answer would be nothing much :) !! The world continues to go around its axis, probably a bit more dirtier, hotter and closer to its eventual destruction and a geopolitical situation that is not helping its cause. If anything, as a person, I have become more mature and my love for our music and the nAdajyOti (and the trinity) has increased further, up to a point where nothing else really seems to matter any more in life :).
A final question would probably be, what has made me come back now and the answer to that one would be straightforward. In the last 4 years, I would have received at least a hundred comments and requests from the rasikAs who follow this blog, mentioning how they have benefited and learnt from this blog, requesting for new posts and my thoughts on specific compositions. So, in a way, you can definitely say that I am back by popular demand and thanks to all of you who have pushed me and helped me wake up and come back to writing about these great compositions. Of course, now that I am writing this, I know how much I missed this feeling of having a high/getting a kick and feeling on top of the world, while at the same time feeling grounded/humble and like a tiny speck of dust in front of these magnum opuses and the brilliance of the nAdajyOti. And so without further ado, let me jump into the composition for today, shrI varalakSmI in the rAga shrI.
There are three primary reasons why I am beginning my comeback with this gentle yet powerful composition. The first one being the fact that I miss my mom, sitting 7000 kilometers away in Luxembourg (which is where I have been for 2.5 years now) and hence I wanted to resume with a composition on the divine mother, seeking strength and Her love in the physical absence of my mom. The second one being it is deepavali season and Goddess Lakshmi is worshipped in the form of Lakshmi puja during this part of the year. The last reason I chose this composition was I thought I should resume with a nice, auspicious composition and what better a rAga to choose than the most auspicious rAga of them all, shrI, whose very name itself means auspiciousness :). And before jumping into the composition, as always, I will start with a bit of background about the deity and the temple where this was composed which will better explain some of the references that dIkshitar uses in the composition to describe the divine mother.
Lakshmi, the consort of Lord Vishnu signifies predominantly wealth and well-being and like the other divine mothers (pArvati and saraswati), is worshipped in many forms and amshAs signifying prosperity, strength and well-being. The first references of Lakshmi are seen in both Rig and Atharva vEda (transcribed ~1000 BC) as "bhadraiṣāṁ lakṣmīrnihitādhi vāci" in which, more than referring to Her as a Goddess, the word is used to signify "auspicious fortune". The first references of Goddess Lakshmi as a consort of Lord Vishnu comes much later in some Hindu texts believed to have been written around 500 BC. Since then, the Goddess has been depicted as one either sitting/standing on a red lotus, wearing red attire (signifying auspiciousness) and having four hands signifying the four ways of Hindu life, dharma, artha, kAma and mOksha.
As the consort of Vishnu, in VishnupurANa, Lakshmi is described in two primordial forms of bhUdEvi and shrIdEvi, who both reside along with Lord Vishnu in vaikunTam and are basically considered the energy forms that help Vishnu protect the universe, very similar to Goddess pArvati being the the shakti force supporting Lord Shiva. As the names suggest, bhUdEvi is considered to signify all that is physical and material matter while shrIdEvi is considered to be pure auspicious energy of the spiritual world. From these two primary manifestations, came eight more secondary manifestations, with each form signifying the eight different forms of wealth, namely, (1) primordial (AdiLakshmi), (2) monetary (dhanaLakshmi), (3) granary (dhAnyaLakshmi), (4) courage (dhairyaLakshmi), (5) progeny/continuity (santAnaLakshmi), (6) fertility, raw power and memory (GajaLakshmi), (7) victory (vijayaLakshmi) and (8) knowledge/education (vidyALakshmi). While different treatises and scriptures have different stories behind origins of Lakshmi, the primary two versions are (1) emergence of Lakshmi from the ocean when dEvAs and asurAs churned the ocean during Lord Vishnu's kUrmAvatar and (2) birth of Goddess Lakshmi as the daughter of sage bhrigu and hence aptly named bhArgavi, on whom dIkshitar composed the magnum opus "shrI bhArgavi" in the beautiful rAga mangaLakaishiki (oh what a kriti, need to go in depth for another time). In this particular composition of shrI varalakSmI, dIkshitar refers to all these amshAs of the Goddess, describing her as pure wealth and auspiciousness.
Another quick and very important mention with reference to this particular composition is how dIkshitar beautifully brings in the allusion to varalakshmI vratam, a divine occasion when the Goddess is celebrated across every household in India during the monsoon months. Unlike other countries in the world, India is unique, for it is the only country blessed with two monsoon seasons. It is the two months of the "second/return" monsoon, Shravana and Bhadrapada on the traditional Hindu calendar that are considered as time for prayers and celebrating nature and life. While a 16 day fast is observed in North India during the month of Bhadrapada (September/October), in South India, the Friday before the full moon night in the month of Shravana (second monsoon in August/September) is celebrated as 'Varalakshmi Vratam' to commemorate Shravana Shukravara and pray for wealth, prosperity and long, healthy life for their husbands. dIkshitar starts off the caraNam with this reference addressing the Godddess as "shrAvaNa paurNamI pUrvastha shukravArE", as the one who is worshipped on the Friday ("shukravArE") before ("pUrvastha") the full moon night ("paurNamI") in the month of shrAvaNa.
With that, let us get into the composition itself and go through the three traditional parts of the composition, the pallavi, anupallavi and the caraNam.
shrI varalakSmI namastubhyam vasupradE
shrI sArasapadE rasapadE sapadE padE padE
dIkshitar sings "Salutations ("namastubhyam") to the auspicious ("shrI") Varalakshmi! The one who bestows ("pradE") fortunes and wealthy dwelling ("vasu"), whose divine ("shrI") feet ("padE") are like a beautiful lotus ("sArasa"), the one from whose feet ("padE") originated the essence ("rasa") of life, the one whose feet is graceful at every step ("sapadE"), and protects in every occasion/step ("padE padE") of all lives."
Just like many other occasions, dIkshitar starts off the composition with the most apt and beautiful word "shrI", thereby achieving at least three different purposes. The first being the literal meaning of the word "shrI" which translates to "auspiciousness", the single most important quality that is attributed to Goddess Lakshmi and hence the best word to address the divine mother. The second, being the esoteric fact that Goddess Lakshmi is also called shrI or thirumagaL in tamizh, because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or gunas, and as I mentioned before, is the divine strength of Lord Vishnu himself. The third being the musical reference to the rAga shrI in which the composition itself is structured, thereby becoming the rAga mudrA.
dIkshitar again brings in multiple possible interpretations by using the word "vasupradE" due to the fact that the word "vasu" itself can be interpreted in multiple ways. One meaning as I have mentioned in the explanation is reference to fortunes and wealthy dwelling. The other meaning can be made in relation to the eight primordial elements or "ashTavasu" referenced in both mahAbhArata and brhadAranyaka upanishad" alluding to the eight elements of earth ("prithvi"), fire ("agni"), wind ("vAyu"), water ("varuNa"), sky/ether ("AkAsa"), sun ("Aditya"), moon ("candramAs") and stars ("nakSatrANi") with Goddess Lakshmi being referred to as the one who gave rise ("pradE") to all these eight elements, in relation to the material bhUdEvi that I mentioned earlier.
Then comes probably the highlight of the pallavi, the beautiful wordplay showing the mastery that dIkshitar had over Sanskrit. As I have mentioned in my many previous posts, dIkshitar exploits the yatis structure in Sanskrit in many compositions and in this composition, he employs the gOpuchcha yati, called so due to its resemblance to a cow's tail which starts thick and trims down, while conveying infinite meanings in the process. This can be better imagined as shown below where he starts off with the main word and peels off one letter at a time to generate infinite more meanings:
Finally, a comment on the swaraprasthAras that make the pallavi flow like this beautiful stream. He starts off with the majestic "Rgrss" at "shrI varaLakshmi" that establishes the shrI rAga in the very first phrase itself. At "namOsthubyam", he uses "Rsnp" and ventures into the mandira sthAyi, coming back to the middle pitch by using "rsNsR" at "vasupradE", a mellifluous swarasAhitya of r"S" at shrI "Sa"rasa before launching into the tAra sthAyi and the gopuchcha yati formation completing the structure and rounding up the pallavi as I mentioned like a beautiful river that resumes its flow after going over some rapids. All in all, I would say, this pallavi is heavily underrated, as you can see, the brilliance, the majesty and the comprehensiveness of it is unparalleled.
Moving on to the anupallavi,
bhAvaja janaka prANavallabhE suvarNAbhE
bhAnukOTisamAna prabhE bhaktasulabhE
shrAvaNa paurNamI pUrvastha shukravArE
cArumatI prabhRtibhih pUjitAkArE
dEvAdi guruguha samarpita maNimayahArE
dInajana sam.rakSaNa nipuNa kanakadhArE
As I mentioned in the introduction to the composition, dIkshitar begins the caraNam by bringing in the reference to varalakSmI vratam by describing the Goddess as "the one who is worshipped ("pUjitAkArE") by suvAsinis ("cArumatI prabhRtibhih") on the Friday ("shukravArE") before ("pUrvastha") the full moon night ("paurNamI") in the month of shrAvaNa". He then brings in his composer mudra of "guruguha" by describing Her as "the one who wears a garland of gems ("maNimayahArE") offered by Lord kArtikEya ("Guruguha") and other celestial beings ("dEvAdi") . He again brings forth the compassionate form of the divine mother by describing Her as "the one who is an expert ("nipuNa") in protecting ("sam.rakSaNa") the afflicted ("dInajana") and resembles a shower (“dhAre”) of gold ("kanaka")". dIkshitar then sets up the crescendo for the composition by moving on to the madhyamakAla sAhityam where he describes the Goddess as "the one who is smart and capable ("caturE") in differentiating ("bhEda") emotions ("bhAvanA"), is worshipped ("sannutavarE") by Goddess Saraswati ("bhAratI"), is a path to/bestower of ("vitaraNaparE") liberation ("kaivalya") and bestower of ("pradakarE") desired boons ("kA.nkSita phala")".
Musical highlights are when dIkshitar explores some amazing phrases in the caraNam such as "snnpNM" at "shrAva Na paurNamI" and "MpnsRGrs" at "dEvAdi guruguha". The madhyamkAla sAhityam as always is a treat with phrases such as "Pmrgrsrpm" at "bhAvanAbhEdacaturE" and predominantly tAra sthAyi "nsrgrsnprsr" at "kaivalyavitaraNaparE". I love the TNS version with kalpanaswaras at "bhAvanAbhEdacaturE" and the more sedate and clean version of the composition presented by the young Ashwath Narayanan here and would recommend listening to these renditions to soak in the composition in its entirety.
I will conclude this post by saying that this composition ranks way high up and among the six beautiful dIkshitar compositions in shrI rAga , probably second in the list, right after the magnum opus "shrI tyAgarAja mahAdhvajArOha" composed at the tiruvArUr temple. I hope some of you musicians who are reading this post are able to re-visualize this composition, expand further on it and present it on the music stage giving this composition the full status and depth that it rightfully deserves :).
Writing this post has definitely reinvigorated the passion for dIkshitar and my love for explaining his compositions. I hope this is the beginning of a new purple patch for me as I expound my creativity by immersing myself in the great man's compositions and bring forth the gems that adorn the magical horizons of dIkshitar's star-studded night sky. I will set myself a target to publish the next post before the end of November, take it one post at a time and see how it goes before I can proudly claim "I am back"!!