Sunday, August 31, 2014

SrI kALahastISa - husAni

 I start this post with an apology to myself and the followers of this blog. An apology for having breached my 15 day per post deadline. With Diwali coming up, work has been quite hectic and I have also been occupied with numerous other things due to which, I have not been able to sit down and pen my thoughts. I need to make up for lost time and will try to publish two posts in quick succession to catch up.

Today, I had a wonderful time with one of cousins and her husband. We had such a great time that I wished we could've spent many more such afternoons and evenings together. It had a bit of everything - fun, laughter, music and of course, good food :). Anyway, now that we have realized how beautiful it is to spend time together, I am sure we will meet more often and enjoy good company and great food :).

Continuing with the pancabhuta linga kritis of shri muthuswAmi dIkshitar, we will today look at the beautiful composition "SrI kALahastISa" in rAga husAni ("husEni" as its name has changed over time) where dIkshitar describes in detail, Lord Shiva embodying the primordial element of vAyu (Air). The significance of this temple is seen in the form of the lamp that endlessly flickers in the airless, almost-vacuum chamber thereby showing the presence of Lord Shiva in the form of air here. The first time I visited this temple, I had a pretty bad headache and we were in a rush on the way back from tirupati. But I still vividly remember the majestic white gopuram with the beautiful river swarnamukhi washing the walls of the temple and seeing this wonderful site, my headache disappeared in a fraction of a second.

The temple town and the Lord here derive their name after the staunch devotees, the spider (Sri), the snake (kAla) and the elephant (hasti) who according to folklore are supposed to have killed each other while demonstrating their great devotion for Lord Shiva. The Lord, having witnessed this, chose to grant them a boon of everlasting fame by merging their names with the vAyulinga at this temple. Even to this day, the symbols of these three devotees are seen on the linga at kAlahasti. Also, since the linga at this kSEtra is predominantly serpentine in shape, this shrine has been associated with performing rituals to get oneself rid of sarpa dosha by performing rAhu-kEtu puja.

The temple is also mentioned in all the tamil scriptures, with the first mentions dating back to the 1st century. The temple is also referred to as dakshin kailAsa and dIkshitar too alludes to this in the caraNam of this composition. In addition to this kriti, dIkshitar has also composed the beautiful samashti caraNam kriti "jnAnaprasUnAmbikE" in kalyANi studded with such brilliant phrases adorning the beautiful consort of Lord Shiva here.

Before I start the kriti, I thought I will make a small mention about the rAga husAni. It is usually treated as a sister rAga of the bhairavi-mukhAri system. However, there are many references to this rAga as Osani from even prior to the sangam era and this is quite evident in some of the sharp, folk-ish prayOgas of this rAga which probably makes it older than bhairavi. To further enhance the distinctions between these rAgas, the dIkshitar school clearly describes this rAga as a bhAshAnga janya of the 22nd mELakarta (shri rAgam) while bhairavi, mukhAri and even mAnji are delineated as bhAshAnga janya of the 20th mELakarta (nArirItigouLa). The rakti-ness of husAni are primarily attributed to the dIrgha madhyama and the nyAsa nishAda and the raga is usually established by characteristic phrases such as "rgMgrs", "ssppndm" and "pndns". All said, the beauty of a phrase-based rakti rAga such as husAni is to be experienced and probably not to be analyzed. The fact that dIkshitar chose a rAga such as husAni to sing the praises of the Lord at such an important saivite kSEtra speaks volumes about the popularity of this rAga in the good old times and the kriti today serves as a standing instruction for all students of music who would like to get a good glimpse about this beautiful rAga

Moving on to the composition, dIkshitar in his usual style embellishes this kSEtra with such brilliant play with the grammar and the language that one can only admire the genius at work and enjoy the brilliance. He steps it up stone by stone as he moves through the composition. In the pallavi, he clearly sets the context, the location and the vAyulinga reference. In the anupallavi, he describes the esoteric significance of the temple and in the process, beautifully weaving in the rAga mudra. Finally, in the caraNam, he makes references to the temple folklore, the Lord's consort, some more interesting play with the words and finishes off with the mention of the great devotee kannappa nAyanAr. All this while the composition smoothly flows along in jhampa tALa. The pallavi goes like,


SrI kALahastISa SritajanAvana samIrAkAra
mAm pAhi rAjamauLE Ehi


dIkshitar starts off the composition by clearly establishing the kSEtra and cries out "Oh Lord of kALahasti!, the Lord in the form of wind ("samIra" + "AkAra") and the one who protects those who take refuge in Him ("Srita jana"), please protect me ("mAm pAhi"), the one who wears the moon ("rAjamauLE").

In his typical clear and succinct way, dIkshitar brings forth the name of the kSEtra and the form of the Lord in this abode. He clearly establishes that this is a pancabhuta sthala and what makes it interesting is his choice of words. He never uses the term vAyulinga in the kriti even though he refers to the primordial elements on quite a few occasions. This is where dIkshitar's stature as a grammatical genius comes forth. He uses the word "samIra" for "wind" to preserve the adyAkshara prAsam in the pallavi. And perhaps the most beautiful part of the kriti is the "Ehi" which he employs to round off the pallavi. The lilting "rgMgrs" is so soothing that it caresses the listener like a peacock feather. To add to this, the "Ssndnp" phrase at "AkAra" and the usage of the corresponding symmetric samvAdi phrase "Ppmgrs" at "pAhi" makes the pallavi in itself a strong decoction with the full flavor of husAni on display. Moving on to the anupallavi


pAkAri vidhi hari prANa-maya kOSAnilAkASa-
bhUmi salilAgni prakASa Siva


dIkshitar describes the Lord as "the vital life force ("prANa-maya kOSa") of Lord Indra ("pAka" +"ari" = Enemy of pAka), Brahma ("vidhi") and Vishnu ("hari")". He continues to address the Lord as "the one who illumines ("prakASa") the five elements, wind ("anil"), ether ("AkASa"), earth ("bhUmi"), water ("salila") and fire ("agni")".

Clearly, the highlight of the anupallavi is the great master's use of vocabulary while referring to the five elements, once again using "anil" to refer to "wind" and in the process embedding the rAga mudra at k"OSAni"l. What can one say about such brilliance except just surrender and enjoy. Once again, look at the careful use of words- clearly cherry-picked by dIkshitar's brilliant mind. Using pAkAri and prANa to keep the prAsa in tact.

Musically, he starts off the anupallavi with the "Pdpmgrs" and goes into the tAra sthAyi with "rgmgrs" at "bhUmi". The DKJ version of the kriti beautifully brings out all the different possible sangatis and is definitely a treat to listen to. Now that the significance of the kSEtra is established, dIkshitar moves on to describe the other aspects of the Lord in the caraNam.


jnAna prasUnAmbikApatE bhaktAbhimAna-
dakshiNa kailAsa vAsAbhishTa dAna-
caturatarAbja dIna karuNAnidhE
sUna sara sUdanAjnAna hara paSupatE
jnAnaguruguha saccidAnanda-maya mUrtE
hIna jAti kirAtakEna pUjita kIrtE


dIkshitar begins the caraNam by referring to the Lord as "the Lord of His consort, jnAnaprasUnAmbikA and the one who is dear to all his devotees ("bhaktAbhimAna")". He brings in reference to the kSEtra once again by referring to the Lord as "the one whose abode ("vAsa") is dakshiNa kailAsa". dIkshitar then moves on to the describe the merciful and compassionate side of the Lord by describing Him as "the one whose lotus hands ("caturatara"+"abja") grants ("dAna") the desired boons ("abhishTa") and the one who is an ocean of mercy and compassion ("karuNAnidhE") to the helpless ("dIna")".

dIkshitar then continues to describe the Lord as "the one who destroyed ("sUdana") cupid, the one who bears arrows of flowers ("sUna sara") and the Lord of all beings ("paSupatE") who removes ignorance ("ajnAna" + "hara"). The one who signifies knowledge ("jnAna") in the form of Lord Guruguha and the embodiment of truth, bliss and consciousness ("saccidAnanda")".

dIkshitar concludes the composition by paying rich tribute to the great devotee kannappa nAyanAr by referring to the Lord as "the one who is famous ("kIrtE") for having been worshipped ("pUjita") by a low-caste ("hIna jAti") hunter ("kirAtaka")." 

The consort jnAnaprasUnAmbika  as Her name indicates is known to be the mother who makes knowledge ("jnAna") blossom ("prasUna") in an individual. dIkshitar again shows his brilliance with words in the caraNam at two places. First, he refers to the Lord's act of burning manmatha with his third eye and to describe this incident, he literally uses "flowery language" by referring to the cupid carrying a quiver full of flower-arrows :). Once again, the choice of words is what keeps the tempo and momentum of the song building up to the crescendo. Second, dIkshitar uses the words oxymoronic words "ajnAna" and "jnAna" almost back to back, with the latter reference being to the incident where Lord guruguha becomes swAminAtha and explains the import of the praNava mantra to Lord Shiva Himself. This very beautifully adds to the rhythm and builds on to the madhyamakAla sAhityam.

dIkshitar finishes off the kriti in style. He pays probably the biggest tribute that any devotee would've attained by referring to kannappa nAyanAr in the final line of the composition. As the story goes, kannappa was a hunter who used to worship the Lord at kALahasti with staunch devotion. One day, he noticed that there was blood oozing out of the Lord's eyes on the linga. Without flinching, he plucked his own eye out with an arrow and placed it on the lingam's eyes. The next day, he noticed that the lingam's other eye had also started bleeding and being the supreme devotee that he was, he was about to pluck his other eye and cover the Lord's bleeding eye when Lord Shiva Himself appeared and restored his eyesight and rewarded him for his staunch devotion by granting him boons and later, the nAyanAr status.

If you look closely, dIkshitar refers to the Lord of having got famous because of the great devotee and not the other way around. How else could have anyone paid a richer tribute to the great kannappa nAyanAr? The other day, I had an argument with one of my friends when he accused of dIkshitar being a racist for using words like "hIna jAti" in this kriti, "Arya vamsajAta tUrya jAti" in the kriti "pAhi mAm ratnAcala nAyaka" and "vaisya jAti strI vESa dharaNam" in "shri mAtrubhUtam". While superficially, it does look as if dIkshitar uses racist remarks, you will always notice that he uses it in all these kritis to bring out the fact that the Lord is completely indifferent to the concept of castes and that true devotion is actually way beyond the societal caste structures. So, actually, dIkshitar was a secularist even back in those times and was trying to promote the greatness achieved by these members of the so-called other/lower castes. I still haven't convinced my friend completely but at least managed to get the "racist" tag removed with my arguments :).

I guess that's enough said about this brilliant composition. I would sincerely urge rasikas to listen to both the DKJ's as well as the more SSP-centric TMK's version of this kriti. Both are beautiful in their own way, the former purely because of the variety of sangatis and the latter more because of the interesting prayOgas and the completely different flavor of husAni that TMK's version brings forth. Would be more than happy to share the links if you are not able to find these recordings yourselves.

I will try to make up for lost time by starting to work on the final kriti of the pancabhuta linga series today itself. "Ananda natana prakASam" describing the ethereal cosmic dance in the mellifluous kEdAram rAga concludes this series at the Chidambaram temple. So, come join me next time as we continue to explore these beautiful compositions together. Till then, keep listening to good music and please share with me your thoughts and suggestions. shrI gurubhyO namah!!

Monday, August 11, 2014

aruNAcalanAtham smarAmi - sArangA

And so I am back with yet another post, continuing to write about the majestic pancabhUta linga kritis of shri muthuswAmi dIkshitar. Last couple of weeks have been filled with a bit of travel and a lot of good music, two brilliant concerts to be specific. I was fortunate enough to listen to an amazing concert by shri Vijay Shiva last Sunday. A very interesting concoction of rAga choices (kalyANi, abhEri and an absolutely mind-blowing virutham) and brilliant accompaniments made the concert a memorable one. It had such an impact on me that the music was ringing in my ears and haunting me for the next 3 days. The very next day I was immersed further in musical brilliance through Sanjay sir's concert. Curiously, he too chose abhEri and the "nagumomu"s on both days took me time-travelling back to the Golden recordings of the 50's and 60's. He also sang kAdambari priyAyai in mOhanam and the kamalAmba navAvarNam in Shankarabharanam and being a guruguha maniac, I couldn't have asked for a better treat :).

I also reconnected with a couple of my old school and music friends over the last two weeks and I am slowly but surely re-establishing the connections that I have lost over the years (for no reason). After a long time, I have begun to feel the vibrant vitality in my life that went missing after I relocated to India in 2009 (again, for no reason).

Before I jump into the composition, as always, I would like to set the context, giving a few insights about the temple, its folklore and its significance. The tiruvannamalai temple town itself is perhaps one of a kind with the divine vibrations that gives the devotee goosebumps. The huge temple complex with its four towering gopurams is set in the foothills of aNNAmalai hills, the mountain in itself being worshipped as an incarnation of Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva is worshipped as "agni lingam" and the main deities are aruNAcalEswarar and Goddess apitakucAmba (unnAmalai in tamizh). According to mythology, Goddess pArvati is known to have closed Lord Shiva's eyes with her hands (playfully) in Kailash and at that moment, the whole universe went devoid of light and was submerged in darkness. The Goddess is supposed to have performed a penance, following which Lord Shiva took the form of a column of fire atop the aNNAmalai hills and thereby returning light to the world.

Also, the other famous version of the origin of this temple is that when the trinity of Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma were trying to establish their supremacy, Lord Shiva appeared in the form of a column of fire and challenged Vishnu and Brahma to find the source of the fire. While Brahma took the form of a swan and flew towards the sky in search of the source of the flame, Vishnu took the form of a board and went underneath. Neither were successful and while Vishnu accepted defeat, Brahma is supposed to have lied to Shiva and said that he had indeed found the source of the fire. Shiva is known to have punished him for this lie and cursed him to not have any temples for his worship.

Hence, the amsha that Lord Shiva embodies at tiru aNNamalai is fire. His resplendent form dispels darkness and drives away ignorance. The power of the Lord here is indeed well documented in the form of so many yogis and great saints who have attained moksha at tiru aNNAmalai. Saint ramaNa maharishi is the foremost of these noble souls and the cave in which he meditated and his beautiful ashram in the foothills are a must visit for every human being. The temple gets mention in all the old scriptures, notably in tEvAram and all the works of appar, sundarar and mANikkavAcakar. Regardless to say, this is one of the most significant shrines for all Saivites and is also deeply associated with the astral body of the human anatomy, especially the third chakra, manipura located in the solar plexus. It is one of the most important chakras and is probably the most difficult to surpass. The tatwa element governing this chakra is fire and signifies itcha Shakti, hence it is believed that by meditating on Lord Shiva in the agni form, this chakra can be easily activated and help the spiritual seeker to progress much faster as his kundalini unwinds.

To do justice to such a major kSEtra, dIkshitar uses sArangA, a mellifluous yet majestic rAga. This kriti is such a jewel that the rAga itself will be proud of the way that it can mend and dIkshitar being the genius he is, uses the phrases beautifully, lilting along in rUpaka tALa and creating a magnificent sculpture in the process, a sculpture that defies time. The structure itself is so beautiful with the pallavi being a prayer, the anupallavi describing the Lord and the temple and caraNam extolling the greatness of the agni lingam and the spiritual significance of the Lord at this kSEtra. The kriti starts as:


aruNAcala nAthaM smarAmi aniSaM
apIta kucAmba samEtam


dIkshitar sings "I always ("aniSaM") meditate ("smarAmi") upon Lord of aruNAcala, the one who is along with his consort ("samEtam") apIta kucAmba".

The pallavi is very simple yet very, very beautiful. dIkshitar makes things very clear as to which Lord this composition is dedicated to and who is the Goddess. He defines the kSEtra and pretty much doesn't talk about anything else in the opening few lines of the kriti. The word aruNAcala itself means the "mountain of fire" or "red (aruna) mountain (acala)" and I don't think there could have been a better word to describe the presence of Lord Shiva as an embodiment of fire residing in this mountain.

Musically, the beauty of rUpaka tALa is what stands out in this pallavi. It flows along with the words, adding more beauty to the sAhitya and kind of weaves in along with the rAga flow. The "rrgmp" start at "aruNA" followed by the very sArangA-ish "dnsDpp" at "nAtham" and the beautiful characteristic avarOhaNam phrase "sndpmrgmrs" being used as it is at "smarAmi" shows the brilliance of dIkshitar as a musical genius who just captures the essence of such a phrase-based rAga in the first three words of his kriti. He not only establishes the rAga but also kind of sets the tone for exploring beyond the typical prayOgams of the rAga with having finished off the basics in the pallavi itself.

Having started off quite simple, he moves on to the anupallavi to dive deeper in describing the Lord and continuing to explore the nuances of the rAga


smaraNAt kaivalya prada caraNAravindaM
taruNAditya kOTi saMkASa cidAnandaM
karuNA rasAdi kandaM SaraNAgata surabRndam


dIkshitar describes the power of the Lord as "The one with the lotus feet ("caraNa"+"aravindam"), just the thought of which ("smaraNAt") bestows ("prada") salvation ("kaivalya"). The one who is the embodiment of pure bliss consciousness ("cidAnandam") and the one who is as resplendent as a million ("kOTi") young ("taruNa") suns ("Aditya"). The one who is the root ("kandam") of the essence ("rasa") of all mercy ("karuNA") and the one unto whom hordes ("bRndam") of celestials ("sura") surrender ("SaraNAgata")".

The first thing that strikes the listener is perhaps the grammar and the rhythm that dIkshitar manages to blend into the composition by starting off the anupallavi with "smaraNAt". It rhymes with the "aruNA" in the pallavi and sets the platform for him to use the subsequent words in the anupallavi such as "taruNA, karuNA and caraNA". Perhaps the greatest beauty of his compositions are the way he uses yati and mOnai and it doesn't feel like he is trying to force-fit anything into the grammatical structural discipline but rather, it just flows and blends so coherently that any other word in something's place will just destroy the beauty completely.

dIkshitar again emphasizes on the Shakti of the Lord at this kSEtra and His ability to grant salvation to the ones who meditate upon him. Great saints such as shri ramaNa are testimony to this. dIkshitar also uses a beautiful volte-face in the anupallavi. Even though the kriti is about the Lord being in an agni form (which signifies energy and ugra), he describes the Lord as an ocean of compassion by bringing in karuNA rasa.

Musically, my favorite part of the anupallavi is the beautiful gamaka-laden "ppmpdnsrsdp" at "tarunAditya". It just melts the listener's heart and is a joy to sing/play. He rounds it off very nicely with "pmDpm rgmrs" at "SaraNAgata surabRndam" looping back to the rishabha start for the pallavi. Moving on to the caraNam,


aprAkRta tEjOmaya lingaM
adyAdbhuta karadhRta sAraNgaM
apramEyaM aparNAbja bhRngaM
ArUDhottunga vRsha turangaM
viprOttama viSEshAntarangaM
vIra guruguha tAraprasangaM
svapradIpa mauli vidhRta gangaM
svaprakASa jita sOmAgni patangam


dIkshitar continues to describe the Lord as "the effulgent ("tEjOmaya") lingam which does not have a beginning ("aprAkRta") and the one who wields a deer ("sAraNgam") in his wonderful ("adyAdbhuta") hands ("kara"). The one who is immeasurable ("apramEyam") and the one who hovers over the lotus (pArvati) ("aparNa"+"abja") like a bee ("bhRngam"). The one mounts ("ArUDhottunga") the sacred bull ("vRsha") as his vehicle ("turangam")".

The madhyamakAla sAhityam beautifully gallops along as the composer continues to describe the Lord as "the one who is the superior special ("viSEsha") inner conscience ("antarangam") of the scholarly and the learned ("vipra") and the one who is dear to the valorous ("vIra") Lord Karthikeya ("guruguha"), the one who explained the praNava mantra ("prasangaM"). The self-luminous one ("sva"+"pradIpa") who wears ("vidhRta") the Ganges ("gangam") and the moon ("mauli") on his head. The one whose luster ("prakASa") is superior to ("jita") to the moon ("sOma"), the fire ("agni") and the sun ("patangam")".

The caraNam is actually pretty simple (grammatically as well as musically) for a dIkshitar kriti and that too, being a pancabhUta linga kriti. He describes the "immeasurable nature" of the lingam and also the resplendence of the Lord in this form to be superior to all sources of light (sun, moon, stars and fire) that humans are usually exposed to. dIkshitar also brilliantly employs the rAga mudra by referring to the physical design of the Lord at this kSEtra and brings in the composer mudra by referring to Lord subraHmaNya as the one who expounded the praNava to His father.

He starts off the caraNam with a sedate "sPmp" at "aprAkRta" and slowly builds up through the Madhya stAyi entering into the tAra stAyi with the rishabha at "bhRngam". The flat madhyama usage at "apramEya" and the "sndnsrssdp" at "ArUDhottunga" are special phrases that embellish the composition and the rAga so beautifully. And to top it off, the crescendo in the madhyamakAla sAhitya with phrases such as "psDpmp" at "svaprakAsa jita" and "Dpmrgmrs" at "sOmAgni patangam" which brings in symmetry is probably what makes the kriti a masterpiece. More than me describing it, listen to the recording of Hyderabad Brothers or DKJ sir uploaded at to fully experience the beauty and brilliance of this composition.

As we continue our journey through the pancabhUta linga kritis, our next stop will be the brilliant composition in rAga husEni (or huSAni as it was called in the olden days) "shrI kALahastIsha" extolling the greatness of the mystical "vAyulinga" at kALahasti. This is probably the kriti where dIkshitar steps it up one big notch as he moves into the more abstract elemental forms of air and space(ether). I will aim to publish the post as soon as possible and try to wrap up the series by end of this month. Before I sign off, I would like to thank all the rasikas who have been sending me mails, suggestions and supporting me with their words of encouragement :). With all your support and the blessings of God and gurus, I am sure I will continue to share my thoughts on these amazing compositions by probably the greatest treasures that mankind has witnessed till date. Until next time, keep drowning in the ocean of music. Ciao!!  


Sunday, July 27, 2014

jambUpatE - yamunA kalyANi

Before I even start, I would like to emphatically state that I am back. This is actually a statement, a reminder to myself that I can't let this blog be dormant any more. I know I have made this resolution to myself many times before (and even declared so on this blog space) but have sadly not been able to keep my word. I think I have finally found a sweet spot in my life, a balance, which is going to ensure that I keep all my fronts active and full of vitality. So, you might ask "What has changed?", to which my reply would be "Nothing Much" except that I have learnt to adopt a new view on life. I was also reading my own posts over the last couple of days and it has definitely rekindled the fire to share my thoughts on this forum and continue my humble attempt at explaining art as I see it.

And what has changed over the last one year since I posted here? I have definitely grown older, thankfully, no grey hair yet (or at least, I haven't seen it yet) and have also realized that age is just a number and that I am as youthful as ever :). Personal life has been a bit of an emotional roller coaster with quite a few things not going as I would have liked them to but am sure things are going to get sorted out over the course of this year.

And before I jump into this post, I would like to dedicate this post to a very good friend of mine. She has been running a music school for the past 15 years and is celebrating the commemoration today. This composition also happens to be one of her favorites and this post is my gift to her on this wonderful day. May she continue her yeoman service to the divine art and may God and gurus shower her with all the love and blessings.

To summarize in a sentence, jambUpatE is a majestic composition describing the attributes and praising the greatness of Lord Shiva  at the jambukEshwara temple in tiruvAnaikkAval, displaying the amsha of water element. dIkshitar beautifully employs the carnati-cised version of the Hindustani rAga yaman kalyAn and embellishes the kriti with phrases which only he could have construed. TiruvAnaikkAval is a small town near the more popular vaishnavite temple town, Srirangam. I have had the privilege of visiting this shrine a couple of times during my Engineering days at Trichy and the town is serene and has a very calm atmosphere with river kAvEri flowing through it. Apart from the temple, the town is also famous because it is the birth place of Sir C.V. Raman and quite a few visitors throng his ancestral home.

According to temple folklore, this town used to be a jambu tree forest and under one of the trees, Lord Shiva took the form of a lingam (swayambu). Two of Shiva's gaNAs were cursed and born as an elephant and a spider in this forest. The elephant used to bring water and clean the lingam and decorate with flowers while the spider spun a web directly above the lingam to prevent leaves and dirt from falling on it. By serving the Lord thus, the two souls got salvation and the place itself derives its name from this (tiru+Anai+kAval). The Lord's consort at this kSEtra is Goddess akhilANDESwari and gets a special mention in the composition. The Shiva lingam itself is situated on top of a stream of fresh water and water gushes all over and around the lingam in the sanctum sanctorum clearly establishing this as the "water lingam" signifying the pancabhUta element . I still vividly remember the goose bumps I got when I saw this on my first visit there. The main prAkAram around the temple also has channels cut on the floor with fresh streams of water visible all over the temple complex and washing the pilgrim's feet soothingly as one walks around.

A temple as significant as this deserves a composition that is rich and unfathomable in depth (just like the water and the Lord Himself) and dIkshitar does much more than just that. Being the brilliant genius that he is, dIkshitar aptly chooses yamunA kalyANI, the raga name itself derived from the name of a river. He also creates a framework revolving around references to liquids (nectar, ocean, rivers) highlighting the water element and creates a composition that in itself is so lucid and free-flowing that leaves both the listener as well as the singer in a state of profound stillness and joy that can only be described by experiencing it. He begins to sing:


jambUpatE mAm pAhi nijAnanda amritabOdham dEhi


dIkshitar cries out "Oh Lord ("patE") of the rose apple tree ("jambU") grove, protect ("pAhi") me ("mAm"). Bestow upon me ("dEhi"), the awakening nectar ("amrita"+"bodham") of true, undiminished bliss/happiness ("nija"+"Ananda")"

One has to clearly observe how dIkshitar carefully cherry-picks each and every word that he wants to use in his compositions. In the very first word of the kriti itself he clearly sets the context that this composition is to describe the deity at tiruvAnaikkA. The word itself describes the folklore of the place and the history. dIkshitar also clearly sings on behalf of every pilgrim, so that every time any true devotee sings the pallavi, the Lord wakes up and listens to his/her's request for the nectar of bliss.

Musically too, the pallavi sets the steady dhrupad-style gait of the kriti in tisra Ekam (become rUpakam over time). A simple "pmpgmp" to begin "jambu" followed by "mpdpmg" with a sphurita gamakam at "patE" clearly makes for a rousing start and makes a person take notice and sit up immediately. The lilting prayOgams at "pAhi" followed again by a "sphurita fall" at "nija" is caressing and is of the highest level of yamunA kalyANi usage. "Ananda" acts as a bridge to scale up to the higher octave and provides the right platform for a beautiful "r s" prayogam at amrita"bo"dham. But clearly the cherry on the cake is the "sddnp" at "dEhi" and with that prayOgam, the master seals the deal to make the pallavi perhaps in itself, a self-sustaining representation of this beautiful rAga.

The goosebumps continue into the anupallavi, by the end of which, I have seen quite a few even cry tears of joy and bliss. I guess the kriti itself is an "amrita" of "nijAnanda".


ambujAsanAdi sakala dEva namana tumburu nuta hRdayatApOpaSamana
ambudhi ga.NgA kAvEri yamunA kambukaNThyakhilANDESwari ramaNa


 After setting the context beautifully in the pallavi, dIkshitar continues to strengthen the description of the Lord and brings in references to all the water bodies that signify the pancabhUta element of water. He describes the Lord as "The one worshipped and prayed to ("namana") by Lord Brahma, the one seated on the lotus ("ambujAsana") and all other Gods ("sakala dEva"). The one whose praises were sung by ("nuta") the celestial musician "tumburu" and the one who removes the afflictions ("tApa") of the devotees heart ("hRdaya")".

He continues to describe the Lord as "the embodiment of the sea ("ambudhi") and the rivers Ganga, Kaveri and Yamuna" and as "the one who is the beloved ("ramaNa") of Goddess akhilANDESwari, the one with a conch-like neck ("kambu"+"kaNTha")".

In the anupallavi, the first thing to notice is the poetic yati and prAsa usages. The usage of "ambuja" and "ambudhi" and of course the link to the beginning of the pallavi itself "jambu" clearly shows dIkshitar's mastery over the language. In the second line, he also beautifully establishes the kSEtra's significance as the pancabhUta sthalam for water and describes the Lord Himself as the ocean and the arterial, divine rivers of the country. In the process, he brilliantly slips in the rAga mudra "yamunA" without any effort. He finishes off the anupallavi by referring to the main Goddess of the shrine and with that, he completes the entire setting of the temple, its main deities, significance as the pancabhUtasthalam and the folklore of the town. The pallavi and anupallavi hence in all sense complete the kriti and it would have been perfectly fine had dIkshitar ended this kriti as a samASTi caraNam.

Some of my favorite phrases in the anupallavi are the usage of both the madhyamams at "namana" (listen to a DKJ version to experience the beauty of this) and the smooth transition from the shadja in madhya stAyi to the shadja in tAra stAyi at "ambudhi" and the sphurita embellished "gmr" at "ga.Nga". Finally, the looping "ramaNa" beautifully cascading to join back into jambUpatE is yet another brilliant usage of the rAga prayOgams that is mind-blowing.

Lyrically, musically and descriptively, the pallavi and anupallavi by themselves paint a comprehensive picture of what needs to be conveyed. Probably the only reason to even have a caraNam is the guruguha mudra. But then again, after listening to the caraNam, one would thank dIkshitar for continuing the composition because the caraNam just takes the kriti to a completely different stratosphere and distinguishes the composition as probably "THE kriti in yamunA kalyANi"      


parvatajA prArthitAbli.Nga vibhO pancabhUtamaya prapanca prabhO
sarvajIva dayAkara shambhO sAmajATavInilaya svayambhO
Sarva karunA sudhA sindhO SaraNAgata vatsalArtabandhO
anirvacanIya nAdabindO nitya moulividhRta ga.NgEndO
nirvikalpaka samAdi niShTa Siva kalpakatarO
nirviSESha caitanya nira.Njana guruguha gurO


dIkshitar continues to describe the Lord as "the resplendent one ("vibhO") who was worshipped by ("prArthita") Goddess pArvati, the one born of a mountain ("parvata"+"jA"). The Lord ("prabhO") of the universe ("prapanca") who is an embodiment of the five elements ("pancabhUta"+"maya")".

dIkshitar addresses the Lord as "the source of happiness ("shambhO") and the one who shows compassion ("dayAkara") on all creatures ("sarvajIva")". He again brings in the reference to the temple town formerly being a forest filled with elephants ("sAmajAtavi") and describes the linga as "one which originated by itself ("svayambhO")". He continues to portray the soothing and loving nature of the Lord here (in line with the nature of the water element) and describes Him as "the nectarous river ("sudhA sindhO") of mercy ("Sarva karunA")" and "the dearest ("vatsala") kin ("bandhO") of the devotees who completely surrender unto him ("SaraNAgata")".

Building up to the final crescendo for the composition he sings "the one who is the unfathomable, indescribable ("anirvacanIya") omkAra, the sound ("nAda") from which the universe originated ("bindO") and the one who always ("nitya") wears on his head ("vidhRta") the crescent ("mouli") and Ganges".

Finally, in the madhyamakAla sAhitya, he describes the Lord as "One who is forever in the state of absolute nothingness, a samAdi state in which one completely loses self-consciousness ("nirvikalpa") and one who is a wish-yielding tree ("kalpakatarO") in communion ("niShTa") with the auspicious energy of Siva. The one who is pure consciousness ("caitanya") without any distinguishable attributes ("nirviSESha") and the one from whom originated ("gurO") the pristine/spotless ("nira.Njana") Lord Guruguha".

One can only heave a sigh of astonishment after going through that caraNam. It is undoubtedly a great piece of art which I hope the generations to come preserve for posterity. dIkshitar has thrown in a bit of everything, ranging from pure references to other Gods and Goddesses to allusion to consciousness and samAdi. The antyAkSara prAsa running throughout the caraNam with each sentence ending with "O" sets an automatic rhythm to the composition itself. Finally, the madhyamakAla sAhitya is a masterpiece filled with lyrical and musical beauty. Since I find it almost impossible to explain the beauty in words, I would urge the rasika to listen to the kriti and just experience the brilliance of this composition. Though I would like to write about the caraNam more in detail, most of the things will end up being superfluous and hence I stop here.

In my next post, I will continue to expound the pancabhUta linga kritis with the composition "aruNAcalanAtham" in raga sAra.Nga. Composed at tiruvannAmalai, where Lord Shiva resides in the form of agni (fire),  this is yet another masterpiece from the brilliant composer. I just have a request for the followers of this blog. If you find henceforth that I don't post anything new within 15 days, request you to please send me a mail at so that I don't slack anymore and continue to do what I believe I do well, which is, sharing my thoughts here on these brilliant masterpieces. Till then, keep listening to good music and have a brilliant week ahead. shrI gurubhyO namaH.         

Sunday, March 3, 2013

cintaya mAkanda - Bhairavi

Three more months seem to have just flown by without me even noticing the turn of the new year. Thankfully, since the Mayans were wrong, I am back on this space, sharing my thoughts on life and music. Not much has changed in life has been very hectic although extremely productive, interesting and satisfying. The daily car drive to and from office has become my only source of listening to music even though I still contemplate about compositions and music whenever I get free. I have also been fortunate enough to gain a new friend in life who teaches music and is probably more passionate about it than anyone that I have seen so far. I am sure this satsangam is going to make me learn even more and share more interesting stuff on this forum :).

Since there is quite a lot to write about in this post, I will directly jump into it. I will try to give a brief intro to the Panchabhuta linga kritis, five beautiful gems composed by shri muthuswAmi dIkshitar and then proceed unto this beautiful kriti in Bhairavi. Writing about something as expansive as the five elements is going to be extremely challenging but I will give it my best shot. The dynamics of our planet (and universe) are governed by five elements - ether (space), air, fire, water and earth. While it is still debatable as to how each of these elements were created and whether the creation of one had any interdependency on the other, taittiriya upanishad seems to have a simple yet complicated answer. In the first anuvaka of the second valli (called Anandavalli) in the taittiriya upanishad, the origins of the five elements is directly attributed to the Brahman, the supreme being. It goes on to say that from the Brahman sprang AkASa (ether,the medium through which we hear). From AkASa, evolved vAyu (air, that which we hear and feel) and from vAyu, evolved agni (fire, that which we hear, feel and see). From vAyu and agni, evolved varuNa (water, that which we hear, feel, see and taste) and from water, sprang prithvi (earth, that which we hear, feel, see, taste and smell). So clearly, it establishes the evolution and the inter-relationships between these elements. It also directly links the 5 elements to the 5 primary senses of a living organism. And Shiva being the supreme being, embodies all these 5 elements and takes 5 different forms in 5 different temples, four in different locations in Tamil Nadu and one in Andhra Pradesh. There is also yet another popular stream of thought that the five downward pointing triangles in the shrI cakra representing shakti are the actual source of the five elements though I don't have much idea about this.

dIkshitar, being the eternal pilgrim, has travelled to all these shrines and composed some amazing music, rich in substance and resplendent in beauty. I will try to do justice to each of these five gems in my next five posts. The word "linga" itself means "mark" and technically, it neither has form nor is it formless. It is more of a symbol of the supreme being's divinity and acts more as a form of the formless and the omnipotent. This aspect of the formless and the "formful" can be seen at all of these five beautiful shrines which seem to have a special mysticism about them.

I would have ideally liked to take up the krithis in the same order of evolution mentioned above. But since the complexity of the compositions (and the elements they signify) increases tremendously as we move from earth to ether and since most of us are more comfortable dealing with abstractions of greater dimensions and gross substance, I thought it would be better to proceed from the simplest element Earth (with which we can relate with all our five senses) and slowly graduate up the pecking order. So here goes the "first" kriti in the panchabhuta linga set, "cintaya mAkanda" in Bhairavi set to rUpaka tALa and composed at the majestic EkAmranAthaswAmi temple in the divine town of kAncIpuram. There are some unique features about these five gems that dIkshitar has composed with each kriti exhaustively listing everything that is to be known about the temple, the significance etc. Musically, each kriti is embellished with beautiful phrases and lyrical content is of the highest order like majority of dIkshitar's kritis are. Each of these kritis enjoy the vintage dIkshitar trademarks such as witty usages of rAga mudra, complex and interesting references to temple folklore etc.   

A bit about the kSEtra before starting off on the composition. The ekAmrESwarar temple is set on a huge sprawling campus on the main temple veedhi of the town. The ekAmra translates to "one mango tree" and the Lord here gets his name directly from the sthala vriksha, the mango tree itself. There is a small temple near the mango tree itself in the temple complex and hence the Lord is also known as mAmUlanAtha. The mango tree is also considered to be an embodiment of the four vedas for it bears fruits of four different tastes each season. The presiding deity is worshipped as Prithvi lingam and there is a somaskanda panel featuring Shiva, Parvati and skanda near the mango tree. The legend has it that Parvati worshipped Lord Shiva in the form of a linga made out of sand and to test the strength of her devotion, the Lord ordered ganges to flood the area. Parvati is said to have hugged the linga in a bid to protect it. The Lord, pleased by this act, appeared in person to marry her. Also, another interesting point to note is that no Shiva temple in kAncIpuram has a sanctum for the Goddess and this holds true in the composition too as dIkshitar does not make a mention about the Lord's consort.

Now that enough background has been set, understanding the nuances of the kriti will be a relatively easy exercise. The pallavi goes as:


cintaya mA kanda mUlakandam cEtah shrI sOmAskandam


dIkshitar starts the kriti off adopting a tone of advice and sings "Oh mind! ("cEtah"), contemplate ("cintaya") on somAskanda, the one seated under the bulbous root ("mUlakandam") of the mango tree ("mA kanda")".

This pallavi is probably one of the greatest displays of dIkshitar's pAndityam. The restrained used of words with perfect yati, monai aspects while conveying all that is to convey about a temple, its deity, its sthala vriksha and all nicely packaged into a single line, like a beautiful sugar-coated pill directed not at the body but at one's mind. The fact that he refers to all with chaitanya (consciousness) is like a wake-up call for all sentient beings who have the power of thought to think beyond material aspects of life and discipline one's mind to focus on the supreme being.

He also brings in the sOmAskanda form of Shiva in which the Lord is accompanied by Parvati and SubrahmaNya ("sa+Uma+skanda"). As I had mentioned earlier in this post, this is the panel that is present in the temple near the mango tree itself. In the depiction of the somAskanda form, skanda sits in-between Shiva and Parvati. If one visits kAncIpuram, the temples of the three are also geographically located in the same way with the kumarakottam temple sandwiched between the ekAmranAtha and the kAmAkSi temples making kAncIpuram probably a perfect sOmAskanda spot in the true sense of the word.

Musically, I have heard slightly different versions of the pallavi with one school stressing on the Nishadam with heavy dhaivata influence and beginning the kriti with "nndpd" while yet another school starting off on a typical bhairavi avarOhaNa-type "Sndp" phrase for "cintaya mA". I am also more used to the rendition in which "cEtah shrI" is sung as "RS nd" with a kampitam on ni while the notations of SSP suggest a completely different shade dropping to the mandira sthAyi nishAda. Both have their own beauty and of course the various sangatis that have evolved over time at "sOmAskandam" (one should listen to the DKJ version of this kriti to experience this part) add so many shades of Bhairavi that the essence of this majestic raga is pretty much captured in this single line of the kriti. Moving on to the anupallavi,     


santatam akhaNDa saccitAnandam
sAmrAjyaprada caraNAravindam


dIkshitar begins to describe the Lord as "one who is immersed in a state of eternal ("santatam"), undivided ("akhaNDa") blissful consciousness ("saccitAnandam") and one whose lotus feet ("caraNAravindam") are capable of bestowing empires ("sAmrAjya prada") on his devotees".

Lyrically, the anupallavi is quite unlike a dIkshitar kriti because of its extreme simplicity. And this simplicity is probably what makes the anupallavi a very strong musical piece of the kriti for it offers ample scope for the musician to extrapolate and pretty much enshrine all the key phrases of Bhairavi. For example, if one listens to the DKJ version of the kriti, the way he expounds the first line of the anupallavi is brilliant. He embellishes it with so many beautiful phrases and also makes brilliant use of the rUpaka tALa when he sings it as "Anandam, citAnandam, saccitAnandam" in 4 Avartanams.

dIkshitar's reference to the Lord being capable of blessing his devotees with empires is a direct allusion to the vast, flourishing kingdoms of the Pallava dynasty. The "mNdpmgrs" at "prada caraNAra" is a treat to listen to and of course sing :). At this juncture, the kriti is nicely set up for a heavy caraNam to consolidate and establish and beautify the composition further. And whattay caraNam follows,


maHNgaLakara mandahAsa vadanam
mAnikyamaya kAncisadanam
angasaundarya vijita madanam
antaka sUdanam kunda radanam
uttuNga kamanIya vRSaturaNgam
bhairavi prasaNgam guruguhAntaraNgam pRthvIliNgam


dIkshitar continues to describe the Lord as "the one with a smiling countenance ("mandahAsa vadanam") who bestows welfare and prosperity ("maHNgaLakara") on his devotees. The one who resides ("sadanam") in the rich abode of kAnCi, filled with carbuncles ("mAnikyamaya"). The one whose splendorous body ("anga saundarya") surpasses ("vijita") that of cupid ("madana"). The one who is the destroyer ("sUdana") of Yama, the God of death ("antaka") and one with teeth as white as jasmine buds ("kunda radanam")".

In the madhyamakAla sAhityam, dIkshitar sings the praises of the Lord as "the one who has the tall and beautiful ("uttuNga kamanIya") bull ("vRSa") as His vehicle and the one enjoys the company of ("prasaNgam") of Goddess Bhairavi (ugra version of Parvati). The one who resides in the interior essence ("antaraNgam") of guruguha and the one who exists in this kSEtra in the form of pRthvI liNgam, symbolizing the earth element.

A major part of the caraNam is quite easily understandable because most of the references are physical in nature and dIkshitar has chosen not to delve into esoteric or yogic references in this kriti. I guess this is in line with the fact that the Earth element itself is quite simple to understand and visualize (when compared to the air or the ether). Musically, the madhyamakAla sAhityam of this kriti is one of my all time favorite :). It pretty much is built like the bull's movement. The "uttuNga kamanIya" part is structured as if the bull jumps and gallops and then comes to a small stop at "vRSaturaNgam". He brings in the rAga mudra beautifully accompanied by a majestic "GRS" phrase. He concludes the kriti with a reference to the purANa of Parvati worshipping the Lord in the form of a sand linga.

There are many good renditions of the kriti available on the net sung by DKJ, Vijay Shiva and T.M.Krishna to name a few. While the DKJ school's rendition is chaste and pleasing, TMK's version has a more stronger adherence to the notations in the SSP and brings out some uncharacteristically beautiful phrases. In my next post, I will take up the beautiful "jambupathE" composed in yamunAkalyANi praising Lord JambukESwara at tiruvAnaikkAval symbolizing the water element. And I will try to ensure that I publish my next post very soon :). Till then, enjoy. Shri gurubhyO namah:    

Sunday, November 18, 2012

shrI rAjagOpAla - sAvEri

I can't believe that it has taken me two and half years to get back to blogging. Reasons for the long gap? Quite a few but primarily two..the rigorous academic schedule at IIM,Bangalore from June 2010 to March 2012 and some personal heart burns especially over the last year or so. The former is thankfully over but the latter continues to trouble me even today and will probably continue to do so till my last breath ;(. But one good thing about the long break has been the fact that my passion for music has grown tremendously and the fire to learn and the hunger to share more with my fellow rasikas has never been stronger. Over the last couple of years, there have been many requests from many different rasikas through e-mails and phone calls to resume blogging and so, here I am, back by popular demand.

Since the kriti I want to focus on today is jam-packed with details, I think I will jump straight into business. One of my closest friends requested for a post on this kriti and hence I am restarting the blog with this post. The main reasons for me to have waited so long to write about shrI rAjagOpAla, THE epic in sAvEri by dIkshitar are two-fold. One, I was waiting for my dear friend Shreekrishna to write about this krithi since his understanding and rendition(s) of this krii are extremely in-depth and two, I was (and still am) unsure whether I will be able to do justice to this magnum opus. I hope SK reads this and adds his thoughts at least in the comments section.

I think I will set the context for the krithi with a brief background on the origins of the rAga and a bit about the sthala purANa and significance of the deity at mannArguDi. The rAga gets special mention in many of the treatises on carnatic music, the earliest reference being Brihaddharma purAna (11th Century), mentioned as sauviri, a janya of gowLa. In the epic sangIta ratnAkara (13th Century) by sArangadEva, the raga is mentioned as sAvari. The antiquity of the rAga is well-established by the fact that pre-trinity composers such as PurandaradAsa and annamAchArya have composed in this scale. sAvEri's importance as a main raga is underlined by the fact that it is one of the 28 rAgas to have been handled by each of the trinity. The madhyama and the gAndhAra in this rAga are so special that one can uniquely identify the rAga just based on these two notes.

dIkshitar no wonder chose this beautiful rAga to sing the praises of the Lord who is considered one of the most beautiful deities every. The temple at mannArguDi was built in the later half of the 11th Century by the Cholas and the gOpuram is quite intimidating to say the least. It remains a mystery as to why the AzhvArs didn't perform mangaLa sAsanam here as a result of which, this temple is not one among the 108 divya dEsams. Prior to the construction of the temple, there used to be a forest of champaka plants here and hence appropriately, the sthala vriksha is champaka (shenbagha flower). Another very interesting point about the deity in the temple is that the utsava mUrti (with rukmiNi and satyabhAma) is more prominent than the mUlavar in the sannidhi which is why even dIkshitar mentions in the caraNam as "shrI rukmiNi satyabhAma shrita pArSva yugaLa".

The mUlavar is considered one of the most beautiful deities ever with the Lord wearing a half-dhoti, holding a whip in his right hand and in the company of calves. The esoteric significance of the deity at mannArgUDi is that the Lord here is worshipped as shrividyA rAjagOpala, shrI lalita and shri rAjagOpAla worshipped as one. dIkshitar is known to have had a special place in his heart for this shrine and has composed many krithis here. Both the dIkshitar kritis in khamAs (santAna gOpAlakRsNam and sArasa dhaLa nayana) are believed to have been composed here though there are no direct references in the compositions. Yet another majestic composition on the deity here is "shrIvidyA rAjAgOpalam" in the 38th mELa jaganmOhanam. The rendition by Vedavalli maami is a must hear. With that, I will jump into the composition itself. dIkshitar starts off with a very short pallavi which goes like:

SrI rAjagOpAla bAla SRngAralIla SritajanapAla

dIkshitar introduces Lord Krishna as the luminescent boy king of cowherds ("rAjagOpAla bAla") who indulges in divine romantic play ("SRngAralIla") and protects the devotees ("Sritajana pAla") who surrender onto him.

There are many interpretations of the SRngAralIla that dIkshitar mentions here, with some even bordering on comparing the divine rAsa lIla with lust. The adolescent love of the gOpis and the Lord usually depicted in art forms such as paintings is only a fantasy. In fact, Lord Krishna was only 8 years old when he left Brindavan to study under Rishi sandIpani. hence everything that happened between the Lord and the gOpis/Radha was when he was a child. Moreover, the Lord was fully aware that He was Vishnu and the gOpis were not ordinary women but rather, realized beings who were seeking the divine union with the paramAtma.
Lyrically, the antyAkshara prAsam and the crisp use of syllables along with the 2-kalai Adi tALa makes one wonder whether dIkshItar himself would have got goosebumps while composing the pallavi. Musically, starting at the upper Sadja, the "Sri" itself sets the tone of the kriti. The "SndSndp" at SRngAra followed by a killer "mgrs" at lIla by themselves are sweeter than the lIla that the Lord is probably engaging in. The pallavi is perhaps the best example of "calm before the storm". It is very deceiving in its appearance for the crisp and short pallavi does not even give a small hint as to the magnum opus that unfolds.

dhIrAgragaNya dhInaSaraNya
cAru campakAraNya dakSiNa-
dwArakApuri nilaya viSishTAdvaita-
advaita laya mAm pAlaya

The composer describes the Lord as the first among the dhIras ("dhIrAgragaNya"). The syllable "dhI" itself is a very powerful word that seen in many mUla mantras including the gAyatri mantra. dhI also refers to a unique combination of supreme intellect, patience and courage. Lord Krishna noted for all this is aptly referred to as the first among the dhIras here by dIkshitar. By virtue of being a dhIra, the Lord protects the weak who surrender to him ("dhIna SaraNya"). dIkshitar continues to describe the temple as a forest ("araNya") filled with beautiful ("cAru") campaka flowers. There is a tale that Goddess Lakshmi appeared at mannArgUDi in the form of fragrant campaka flower which is why She is sometimes also called as Shenbaghalakshmi. It is also said that even the bees at mannArgUDi refrain from drinking the honey from the campaka flowers here so that the flowers remain pure and unsoiled for decorating the Lord with.

The temple is also known as the southern counterpart of dwArakA, the city of Lord Krishna and this is aptly captured by dIkshitar here by calling the Lord as the one who resides in the dwArakA of South India ("dakSiNa dwArakApuri nilaya"). dIkshitar pleads with the Lord to protect him ("mAm pAlaya") and describes the Lord as the union of two streams of philosophies, qualified or attributive monism ("viSishTAdvaita") and monism ("advaita"). This once again comes back to visualizing the deity as shrIvidyA rAjagOpAla, a unique union of divine forces of both Lalita and Lord Krishna. This is also reflected in the slightly feminine posture of the main deity with an ear-ring on one ear and a dangling kundala on the other ear. This is what makes the deity incomparable in beauty in a physical sense and power in a metaphysical sense. dIkshitar being a shrividyA upAsaka would have feasted his visit to this kshetra.

Lyrically, one can see how dIkshitar toys with the words. While the regular prAsam, yati and mOnai aspects are beautifully preserved in the anupallavi, one can also see how the entire anupallavi is filled with complementary duality. dhIra and dhIna for example which are exact opposites in terms of meaning and of course bringing in the two streams of philosophies. The chitta swaram (usually sung at the end of both anupallavi and caraNam) brings the ultimate closure for it embellishes the beauty of sAvEri with prayOgams that pretty much exhausts the scope. The "sndr" phrase at the beginning of the second Avarthanam of the chitta swaram stirs the heart and brings about a feeling that is indescribable.

As one can clearly feel, there is a definite shift in the seriousness and complexity of the kriti moving from the pallavi to the anupallavi. dIkshitar changes to top gear in the caraNam and leaves the rasika floored.

smErAraNa sEvaka caturAnana nArAyaNa
tAraka divyanAma pArAyaNa kRta-
nAradAdi nuta sArasapada
sadAmOda nArIvEsha dhara vAmabhAga murArE
SrI vidyArAja harE SrI rUkmiNi satyabhAmAsrita
pArSva yugaLa kambujayagaLa
nIra sampUrNa haridrAnadi-
tIra mahOtsav vaibhava mAdhava
mArajanaka nata Suka sanaka janaka
vIra guruguha mahita ramA sahita

dIkshitar continues to describe the beauty of the Lord as one with a smiling countenance ("smErAraNa") and the one who is served by the four-headed Lord Brahma ("sEvaka caturAnana"). The sthala purAna says that Lord Brahma once became extremely arrogant and fell from his position of high stature. Upon the advice of sages Suka and sanaka, Brahma is supposed to have come to campakAraNya, meditated on the deity here with the dvAdasa-kshara mantra and was subsequently elevated to his old position by Lord Vishnu. dIkshitar then refers to the penance and service ("nuta") of devotees such as nArada ("nAradAdi") who constantly chant and spread the glory ("pArAyaNa kRta") of the Lord by chanting his auspicious name ("divyanAma"). Here dIkshitar describes the Lord's name ("nArAyaNa") as a tAraka mantra, a chant that will help one to cross the cycles of rebirth and attain the Lord's feet.

dIkshitar then goes on to describe the physical beauty of the deity as the one with lotus feet ("sArasapada") and the one in floating in eternal bliss ("sadAmoda"). He once again reiterates the ardhanArIshwara style of the Lord whose left-side of the body ("vAmabhAga") is adorned with feminity ("nAri vEsha dhara") and describes the Lord as the one who killed Mura ("murArE"). The composition kind of ends to exist on a physical plane at this point and takes off on a whole new dimension with the next few lines in some ephemeral space.

Foraying into the tAra sthAyi, dIkshitar directly addresses the Lord as the supreme form of shrIvidya ("SrividyArAja hArE") and describes Him as one who is flanked on both sides ("pArSva yugaLa") by Rukmini and SatyabhAma. The composer then pays tribute to the beauty of the deity by referring to Him as one with a neck ("gaLa"), the beauty of which surpasses ("jaya") that of a well-formed conch ("kambu").

No description of a temple is complete without mentioning its temple tank and dIkshitar starts of the madhyamakAla sAhityam by describing the temple tank, haridrA, as one filled with holy water ("nIra sampUrNa"). The tank is so huge that dIkshitar calls it as a river, haridrAnadi, and goes on to describe the Lord as the glorious ("vaibhava") Madhava who is carried along in the flotillas in the temple tank during the months of the great festivals ("mahOtsava") at the temple. dIkshitar once plays with the word "janaka" by addressing the Lord as the father of Manmatha ("mArajanaka") and by referring to sages suka, sanaka and janaka as the ones who praised ("nata") Him. dIkshitar waits till the last line to incorporate his composer mudra by describing the Lord as one who is praised ("mahita") by the valorous ("vIra") Lord Guruguha and the one who resides with Lakshmi ("ramA sahita").

The experience of listening to a nice rendition of this kriti or trying to render the kriti by oneself, I would describe it as physically and emotionally exhaustive. One can't help but feel completely overwhelmed by the beauty of this majestic composition. By the time the second round of chitta swarams come at the end of the caraNam one is completely drained and is saturated with the musical, lyrical, grammatical and literary genius of the nAdajyOti MuthuswAmi dIkshitar. Filled with intricate passages and prayOgams which exhaust the scope of a major rAga like sAvEri, this is definitely one of the biggest feathers in dIkshitar's cap. Until next time (hopefully very soon), a proud dIkshitar bhakta signing off by saying "shrI guruguhasya dAsOham".

Sunday, March 28, 2010

shrI guruguhamUrtE - udayaravicandrikA

I still don't know how an entire month has passed so quickly. And, as always, I have not been able to blog for quite a few reasons, some good and some bad. The good incidents give you a great feeling of high while the bad ones leave you with a taste of vitriolic bitterness and the oscillation between the two seem to make up what we call as life. Over the last month, these vicissitudes and vagaries of life have made me contemplate quite a lot about the startling difference between karma and free-will. Being an extremely open-minded person and an eternal optimist that I am, I still find it quite difficult to digest some of the events that happen in our lives quite frankly beyond our control and perhaps due to no mistake of ours. However much I isolate myself from this world, incidents like a dear one meeting with an accident rendering him paralyzed for a few months, a close friend getting hurt (physically/mentally) etc seem to have a great impact on me forcing me to go further into this cocoon that I create for myself quite often. I guess it is events like this that clearly show the evanescence of human life, shakes up one's life and makes him go in search of answers which this plane of existence can probably never offer. Anyway, I don't know how much of this makes sense or how much of this sounds like plain cribbing, but this is the contemplative state of mind I am in right now and where else can I vent such thoughts other than my personal blogspace :). May the supreme force help me overcome all these delusions and find the answers that I need.

I have been planning on yet another trip to tiruvArur and some temples in the vicinity (kIvalUr, nAgapattinam, kuzhikkarai etc) followed by a trip to ettayapuram (dIkshitar's final resting place) but certain incidents (the bad ones as I have ambiguously referred to in the above paragraph) in the last few weeks have thrown things completely out of gear, creating turbulence at home and hence preventing me from going on this pilgrimage. I guess its God's own way of telling me that it is not yet time to come and see Him. Well, I shall hope that the time comes soon and that I will be able to go on this journey that I so dearly want to. Anyway..I shall stop blabbering here and continue with the krithi that I will be taking up in this post. "shrI guruguhamurtE" in udayaravicandrika is dIkshitar's eighth and final krithi of the guruguha vibhakti series composed exclusively in the vocative case and set to rUpaka tALa. Before I get into the masterpiece, I would like to clarify a few confusions regarding the raga udayaravicandrika itself, the chief one being the claim that Suddha dhanyAsi and udayaravicandrika are one and the same.

Udayaravicandrika (referred to as URC henceforth) is cleverly classified as an upAnga janya of the 9th mELakartha dhunibhinnasadjam (dhEnuka as per the other school) with the scale: sgmpns;snpmgs. Hence, URC employs a kAkali niSAda. Suddha dhanyAsi (referred to as SD henceforth) on the other hand is classified as an upAnga janya of the 22nd mELa, shri rAga and hence makes use of the kaiSiki niSAda. This is the only significant difference between the 2 rAgas and SubbarAma dIkshitar highlights this clearly while explaining the rAga lakSaNa of SD in the SSP. URC is also known as Srothaswini. However, the fact that the tyAgarAja school also used the name URC while referring to SD complicated the matters and somehow this seems to have stuck with the people after the trinity's times and this niSAda disctinction between the 2 rAgas seems to have completely disappeared with people saying that URC and SD are one and the same. And with this beautiful composition of dIkshitar being neglected in the concert arena (except for a few artists like Vedavalli maami), the original URC as per the dIkshitar school has successfully been buried in its grave.

Anyway, I will now start with the krithi,


shrI guruguhamUrtE ciccaktti sphUrtE
ishya janAvana kIrtE sumuhUrtE jaya


dIkshitar addresses the Lord guruguha as "the one throbbing ("sphUrtE") with the power ("shakti") of consciousness ("cit"). The one who is renowned ("kIrtE") for protecting His disciples ("Sishya jana"). The one who is an embodiment of auspiciousness ("sumuhUrtE"). Victory ("jaya") to you."

The first thing that struck me when I listened to this krithi a few years back was the tone that dIkshitar uses throughout this composition. It sounds as if he has achieved or won something that he has been longing for. And he dedicates this victory to Lord Guruguha and hence he ends the pallavi, anupallavi as well as the caraNam hailing the Lord for his victory. It is said that dIkshitar performed austerities and deep meditation for forty days at tiruttani before the Lord appeared in front of him as an old man and put sugar crystals in his mouth after which dIkshitar straight away burst into music with the guruguha vibhakti series. Hence, one can assume that on a physical plane, dIkshitar was probably ecstatic on completing his first set of compositions. Of course, on having been able to visualize and interact with the Lord at higher spiritual realms, it is only appropriate that dIkshitar pays his respects and thanks to his guru and the Lord in this concluding piece of this set of compositions.

Another interesting point to note in the pallavi is the way dIkshitar describes guruguha as one vibrating with cit shakti, the power of consciousness. Shakti is believed to be the manifestation of the kinetic component of Brahman. Hence, it is Shiva (consciousness) who manifests as Shiva Shakti. Therefore Shakti is consciousness by itself. Once we understand this, we can attach two aspects to this Shakti, namely, cit shakti or vidyA shakti (the illuminating consciousness) and mAya shakti or avidyA shakti (the deluding/veiling consciousness). The two shaktis are conscious by themselves and are independent energy forces. But this mAya shakti itself is composed of the three gunas, rajas, tamas and sattva and by using these gunas it not only makes itself appear unconscious but also shrouds the vidyA shakti from the human mind. One has to hence first overcome this mAya shakti and then tap the cit shakti to attune to divine vibrations. dIkshitar here visualizes the Lord as the one who throbs with this cit shakti and by tapping into His divine consciousness for probably even just a second, one can get enlightened and free themselves from bondage. And imagining the dIkshitar's state of mind to even realize the Lord as this throbbing energy is scintillating :).

Coming to the musical aspects, dIkshitar clearly highlights the janTa prayOgams which gives jivAdAra to URC right at the beginning with the "sggmmpp" phrase at "shrI guruguhamUrtE". He also highlights the gAndAra with the "pmmG" prayogam at "sphUrtE". It is only in the second line that he brings in the niSAda and paints a complete picture of URC. It was only a couple of months ago that I completely realized the beauty of some phrases like "PmGmgs" at "kIrtE" when I heard my dear friend Lavanya Kothandaraman sing. Thanks for that laavi :). Moving on to the anupallavi,


yOginI hRdaya prakASa citta vRttE
yugapad-bhOga-yOga pradAna nipuNa SaktE
Agama rahasya tattvAnusandhAna yuktE
AnandAnuraktE ativiraktE jaya jaya


Here, dIkshitar describes the Lord as "the one who rejoices and delights ("hRdaya prakASa") the minds ("citta") of the yOginIs. The one with the power ("SaktE") that is an expert ("nipuNa") in giving ("pradAna") time-bound ("yugapad") material pleasures ("bhOga") as well as ageless spiritual bliss ("yOga"). The one who can be realized by following the truths ("tattvAnusandhAna") and expounding the secrets ("rahasya") of the Agamas. The one who is an embodiment of supreme bliss ("AnandAnuraktE") and (at the same time) completely detached and free of bondage ("ativiraktE"). Victory unto you ("jaya jaya")."

Now apart from the direct interpretation of yOginI hRdaya as given above, I must also mention the fact that yOginIhRdaya is one of the 64 tantras of the vAmAchara and the kauLAchAra paths of shrI vidyA sAdhana. Hence, the first line of the pallavi could also be interpreted as a description of Lord guruguha as "the one who enlightens the mind and shines forth through the yOginI hRdaya concept". dIkshitar also clearly displays his scholarly handling of Sanskrit grammar once again. While the antyAkshara prAsam utilizing the sambOdhana pratama vibhakti runs throughout the krithi beautifully, the yati and mOnai aspects of the grammar (yOginI-yugapad and Agama-Ananda pairs) are also showcased quite brilliantly. It all seamlessly blends in and only when we take out word by word can we even realize that it is like separate pearls making up a nice garland with a common thread running through :). dIkshitar finally describes the Lord as one who is full of bliss and at the same time devoid of any attachments. This concept (which could also be used to describe the ideal guru that a disciple wants to find in this world) strikes a remarkable similarity to the supreme lotus (quite aptly, the national flower of india) whose petals and leaves are never sullied even if it grows in a dirty pond.

Musically, the anupallavi is my favourite part of this krithi. He begins the anupallavi itself with unusual phrases like "PSn" and "pnPsGg" at "yOginI" and "hRdaya prakASa" respectively. He continues to milk the beauty of URC by employing zigzag vakra-ish phrases like "sgSmPpnS" at "yugapad bhOga yOga" and "nmpmnpp" at "nipuNa SaktE". I dont know if dIkshitar would have realized at the time of composing this krithi that URC would fade away into oblivion, but, it definitely does seem like this krithi is one hallmark composition in this rAga and it will hopefully withstand the onslaught of those repetitive kAmbhOjis and bhairavIs. Going to the caraNam,


Atma-ISvara jIva bhEdAvaraNa nivRttE
ASrita SishyAnugraha kAraNa pravRttE
AtmatattvAdi Sodhana sAdhana sampattE
Arakta-SvEta miSra caraNa pravRttE
Atma kOti bhaktE anAdi mAyOtpattE
AtmAnubhava sArasantRptE nirmuktE
AtmOdaya ravicandrikA sandIptE
paramAtma shrI cidAnandanAtha namastE jaya jaya


In the caraNa, dIkshitar continues to describes the Lord in his typical advaitin mode as "The one who removes ("nivRttE") the ignorant veil ("AvaraNa") of distinction ("bhEda") between the individual soul ("Atma jIva") and the supreme soul ("ISvara jIva"). The one whose divine nature is to bestow His grace and blessings ("ASrita anugraha") on His disciples ("SishyA"). The one who shows the path of noble tools and techniques ("sAdhana sampattE") and the means for testing ("Sodhana") and realizing the knowledge of one's own self ("Atmatattva"). The one whose feet ("caraNa") are a mixture ("miSra") of red ("Arakta") and white ("SvEta"). The one with crores of devotees ("kOti bhaktE") and the one who created ("utpattE") the delusion ("mAya") which has no origin ("anAdi"). The one who is completely satisfied ("santRptE") with the essence ("sAra") of experience of the self ("AtmAnubhava") and devoid of all attachments ("nirmuktE"). The one who lights the lamp ("sandIptE") of the soul ("Atma") in the rising sun ("udaya ravi") and the moon ("candrikA"). Oh supreme soul!! ("paramAtma"), the auspicious ("shrI") ruler of bliss of consciousness ("cidAnandanAtha"), prostrations ("namastE") and victory to thee ("jaya jaya")."

The steadfast advaitin that dIkshitar is comes to the forefront in the caraNa. He begins by describing the Lord as the one who removes the sheath that creates a sense of individuality and that ego called "I". I personally think that this where the distinction between the guru and the Lord completely vanishes. Since dIkshitar accepts Lord guruguha Himself as his guru, he attributes quite a lot of the characteristics that one would normally associate with a guru to describe the Lord Himself. You can actually see this in the first 3 lines of the caraNam where he describes the Lord as one who protects and guides His disciples and the one who is the means as well as the path of self-realization. These 3 lines, in my opinion perhaps are the climax of this series of krithis. It is quite clearly visible here that dIkshitar has attained great heights of spiritual maturity by the virtue of which He is not only able to see the Lord as His own guru but also is able to use the Lord Himself as his vehicle to reach self-realization. Now, that perhaps happens to only one in probably a million (even among the greatest of yogis). That's why I say that these 3 lines does it for me as far as the krithi goes. Ofcourse, dIkshitar continues to show his other faces in the following lines of the caraNam.

dIkshitar describes the Lord as one whose feet is a mixture of white and red. This is perhaps best understood as a reference to the union of Shiva and Shakti who are usually symbolized by white and red respectively. This is the reason why Vibhoothi (sacred ashes) which is white in color is splashed across the forehead and kumkum which is red in color is placed as a dot (a bindu) at the spot between the eyebrows (the location of the third eye and the Agnya cakra). Finally, dIkshitar seems to have merged with the Lord (his guru) when he sings "AtmAnubhava sAra santRptE". Here, he describes himself (his soul) as the one who has experienced this divine joy of realizing him"self" and hence becoming complete and achieving divine communion. He describes the essence of this divine journey as the Lord Himself. aahaa..what brilliance!! Brings tears to my eyes accompanied by instantaneous goosebumps.

Finally, dIkshitar the composer comes out in the madhyamakAla sAhityam where he slips the rAga mudra in without disturbing the serenity or the them of the krithi, rather, enhancing the effect further. He describes the Lord as the one who stimulates the divine urge in His disciples with the brightness of the sun and the moon and in the process incorporating the rAga mudra. What an audacious display of ingenuity. He ends the krithi by once again offering his salutations to the Lord. He probably couldn't have ended the krithi on a more appropriate note ("jaya jaya"). Composing such a magnum opus for his first ever set of compositions is not only a victory to dIkshitar but also to the divine Lord guruguha Himself and with this victorious beginning, dIkshitar never looked back, composing one masterpiece after another for the next 35 years of his life.

To describe the musical aspects of this caraNam (and that too only partially), I would need probably yet another blogpost. Hence, I feel it would be better to just leave it to the rasika to listen to this krithi and soak in the genius called dIkshitar. With this, I will close this vibhakti series. I know I have taken quite a long time to finish this series but I hope I have done justice to this wonderful set of compositions. In my next few posts, I will take up some long pending personal requests from people who follow this blog. Quite surprisingly some of these requests fit very nicely into the Guruguha theme that I have been writing about in the last set. Hence, I will first take up "SaravaNabhava guruguham" in the rAga rEvagupti, set to rUpaka tALa composed at tiruvAvinankudi. Till then, listen to URC and have fun!!

Thursday, February 18, 2010

guruguha svAmini - bhAnumati

I believe it has been quite a long time since I blogged back to back. Well, as long as it is for the good, I am not going to complain. On a side note, it definitely seems like my friends are on a marriage mania rampage or something of that sorts. Between January 17th and February 25th, around 11 of my friends and 2 of my cousins have got/are getting married. It is quite funny to open your e-mail inbox and find an invitation every day :-). Anyway, I wish them all wonderful years of togetherness and joy. With nothing much to write about, I guess I will move on directly to the krithi that I will be taking up today.

"guruguha svAmini bhaktim karOmi" is the seventh krithi in the guru theme composed exclusively in the seventh/locative case in the rAga bhAnumati and set to khaNDa jAti tripuTa tALam. bhAnumati is the 4th rAga in the asampUrNa mELa scheme and is pretty much similar to its counterpart vanaspati (the rAga in which thyAgarAja composed the beautiful masterpiece "pariyAcakamA") in all aspects except for the fact that bhAnumati is gAndAra varjya in the ArOhaNam. dIkshitar clearly sticks to this idea and the way he handles the rishaba and especially the madhyama in both of his compositions (brhadambA madambA being the other composition), one actually never feels that the gAndAra is missing. It is phrases like "ndns, pmgrs and rmpnd" that give that extra beauty to this rAga. And unlike the other krithis in this theme we have seen so far where dIkshitar pays rich tributes to both his physical guru as well as Lord SubrahmaNya, dIkshitar seems to pretty much have gone into an even higher plane of existence and concentrate only on the Lord's attributes in this krithi. I will explain this as we go along in this post. I have to thank dear SK (co-author in this blogspace) for introducing me to this krithi back in december 2007 when he spent a magical, musical fortnight with me back in Austin, Texas. Good times..great times rather ;(. Anyway..the pallavi goes like,


guruguha svAmini bhaktim karOmi
nirupama svEmahimni paramdhAmni


dIkshitar sings "I am devoted ("bhaktim") to Lord guruguha, the one who possesses unsurpassed ("nirupama") glory by the virtue of His own self ("svEmahimni") and the one who resides in the eternal supreme state ("paramdhAmni")."

At the very beginning of this krithi itself, dIkshitar addresses his devotion towards the Lord Himself whom dIkshitar has accepted as his guru as well as the final destination that his soul wants to attain. He also describes the Lord as one who is in a supreme plane of consciousness and the one who he visualizes to be of infinite glory. This glory that dIkshitar is describing here is a direct result of the Lord's pure consciousness which has ascended to the highest plane and hence the Lord (SubrahmaNya in this case) is an embodiment of that paramAtma (supreme consciousness) that a yOgi (dIkshitar in this case) wishes to attain.

The musical aspect of the pallavi is something to be just experienced. dIkshitar starts the krithi off with the avarOhaNa and captures bhAnumati right there with defining phrases like "pmgrs" at "bhaktim karOmi" and "ndns" at "nirupama". And he uses the gAndAra varjya ArOhaNa prayOgam of "rmmp" at "svEmahimni". More than just the usage of notes, it is the way he employs the gamakas that is just brilliant. For example, in the "ndns" phrase at "nirupama", the first nishAda is flat whereas the second nishAda is a beautiful kampitam oscillating and entering into a wedlock with the Sadja. He caps off the pallavi with a "pSndn" at "paramdhAmni" to loop back to the pallavi beginning. Moving on to the anupallavi,


karuNAkara cidAnanda nAthAtmani
karacaraNAdyavayava pariNAmAtmani
taruNOllAsAdi pUjita svAtmani
dharaNyAdyakhila tatvAtItAtmani


dIkshitar describes the Lord as "the compassionate one ("karuNAkara") and the embodiment of eternal bliss ("cidAnanda"). The one who is responsible for the acquisition and transformation ("pariNAmAtmani") of the limbs ("avayava") such as hands, legs etc ("kara caraNAdi"). The one whose form ("svAtmani") is worshipped ("pUjita") to obtain happiness through various stages of sAdhana such as taruNa etc ("taruNOllAsAdi"). The one who transcends all 'realities' ("tatvAtItAtmani") associated with the world ("akhila") such as the earth, etc("dharaNyAdi")."

In the anupallavi, dIkshitar predominantly mentions the tatvAs ("truths") and the type of sAdhana that is characteristic of the kauLava mArga/school of thought. There are many schools and systems that have been in practice for spiritual awareness and progress. It is common practice in most of these schools to believe in the concept of tatvAs or realities. These realities are associated with the physical body of the yOgi and all the other material/gross objects of this world. One of the chief goals of any yOgi is to use certain techniques (this varies depending on the school one is associated with) to transcend all these 'realities' and move beyond this world into a higher plane of existence, a different world altogether. The "dharaNya" tatva that dIkshitar mentions here is classified under the pancabhUta category of realities which are to be overcome.

There are seven stages of knowledge known as gnAna bhUmikas through which a yOgi passes. These are subEccha ("the desire for enlightenment"), vicAraNa ("enquiry"), tanumAnasa ("tenuous mind"), satvapatti ("self-realization"), asamsakti ("non-attachment"), padArtabhAvana ("non-perception of objects") and turyaga ("transcendence"). Corresponding to these stages of knowledge, there are different stages in the practice ("sAdhana"). It is the first 5 stages of sAdhana that are very critical as it is in these 5 stages the mind has a tendency to wander and only under the strict guidance of a guru can it obtain the discipline that is needed to proceed further. dIkshitar mentions the second stage, taruNa or the youthfulness stage of this sAdhana. Only after completing the fifth stage called as praudhAnta ("end of maturity") is the disciple considered mature and the guru lets go of the disciple a bit as he enters the sixth stage of unmani ("mind-devoidness").

Coming to the musical aspects of the anupallavi, dIkshitar employs the mandira sthAyi quite beautifully with "sndnp ndns" at "karacaraNAdyavayava" and he uses the exquisite "rgrs" at "pariNAma" and "pUjita". He also gives a lot of importance to the "rmp" phrases right from the beginning of the anupallavi at "karuNA" to the end of the anupallavi at tatvA"tItAtmani". Moving on to the caraNam,


nijarUpa jita pAvakEndu bhAnumati
niratishayAnandE hamsO viramati
ajashikSaNa rakSaNa vicakSaNa sumati
harihayAdi dEvatA gaNa praNamati
yajanAdi karma nirata bhUsurahitE
yamaniyamAdyaSTAHNga yOga vihitE
vijayavallI dEvasEnA sahitE
vIrAdi sannutE vikalpa rahitE


dIkshitar continues to describe the Lord as "the one whose radiant form ("nijarUpa") outshines ("jita") the sun ("bhAnu"), the moon ("indu") and fire ("pAvaka"). The one who resides ("viramati") in the hearts of the supreme swan-like yOgis ("hamsO") who are immersed in eternal bliss ("niratishayAnanda"). The intelligent one ("vicakSaNa sumati") who punished ("shikSaNa") and also protected ("rakSaNa") Lord Brahma ("aja"). The one worshipped ("praNamati") by Lord Indra ("harihaya") and other dEvAs and celestial beings ("gaNa"). The one who is dear ("hitE") to the brAhmans ("bhUsura") who perform ("karma") sacrifices and other rituals ("yajanAdi"). The one perceived by practicing ("vihitE") the 8-fold path ("aSTAHNga") of yOga which is made up of components such as yama and niyama. The victorious one ("vijaya") accompanied ("sahitE") by Valli and dEvasEna. The one worshipped ("sannutE") by men of valour ("vIrAdi") and the one who is formless and hence beyond imagination ("vikalpa rahitE")."

He straightaway incorporates the rAga mudra by comparing the Lord's effulgence to that of a sun at the beginning of the caraNam. He continues to emphasize the significant role that Lord guruguha plays in the spiritual progress of a yogi (could be referring to himself here) and describes how the Lord resides in the hearts of those paramahansas, those supreme yOgis thereby making their heart caves as His shrine. dIkshitar then makes a reference to the incident in which Lord SubrahmaNya punishes Lord Brahma, the creator, for not being able to explain the meaning of the praNava mantra Om. He imprisons Lord Brahma for his ignorance and hence the whole process of creation comes to a full stop. After repeated appeals by the other celestial beings, Lord Siva approaches Lord SubrahmaNya and requests Him to release Brahma and forgive Him. Lord Siva also questions guruguha Himself if he knows the meaning of the praNava mantra to which Lord guruguha answers that He will explain the entire meaning to Lord Siva in His ears, climbs on his lap and speaks into His ear. Since Lord SubrahmaNya teaches His own father, He is known as swAminAtha and that's how the puNya kSEtra swAmimalai near kumbakonam gets it name. Finally, He also explains the meaning to Lord Brahma, forgives Him and releases Him.

In the madhyamakAla sAhityam, dIkshitar refers to the Lord as one who is formless and beyond imagination. He also states that the way to perceive the Lord is through Patanjali's 8-fold yogic path. This eight limbs of this path are restraint and social discipline ("yama"), observance and individual discipline ("niyama"), posture ("Asana"), breath control ("prANAyAma"), sense withdrawal ("pratyahara"), concentration ("dhArana"), meditative absorption ("dhyAna") and blissful super-consciousness ("samAdi"). The first two limbs yama and niyama are once again extremely critical in the sAdhana of a yOgi. As the name suggests, yama refers to codes of conducts and it consists of 5 parts: ahimsa (non-violence), satya (truthfulness), AstEya (non-stealing), brahmacarya (the way of living in brahmA's perception) and aparigraha (non-covetousness). Niyama on the other hand refers to religious observances and self-discipline and consists of 5 parts, namely, Shaucha ("purity"), santOsha ("contentment"), tapas ("austerity"), svAdhyAya ("repitition of mantras and reading of scriptures") and IshvarapraNidhAna ("self-surrender to the Lord"). dIkshitar talks about the techniques in rAja yOga quite often in many of his compositions.

There are so many beautiful phrases that I could go on and on about but just to highlight a few, the special prayOgam that dIkshitar repeatedly uses in the caraNam is "spmp". He starts off the caraNam with this phrase at "nijarUpa", uses it again at "viramati" and once again as "sspmp" at "ajashikSaNa" although the three usages that I have cited have a completely different shade each time. Another prayOgam that I would like to mention is the "grgs" phrase at "harihayAdi". In addition to the already brilliant sound that this phrase has, if you replace the shabda 'ha' with 'ga', this becomes a beautiful svarAksharam too :). The madhyamakAlam is also full of some really shtud prayOgams from which one can learn a lot. Since it would anyway be futile on my part to try and explain these phrases, I request you to go to our website and listen to the krithi and just enjoy the experience :).

I guess that is pretty much it from me on this post. I can't think of anything else that I need to highlight. In my next post, I will take up the final krithi of this series, shrI guruguha mUrtE in the rAga udayaravicandrika. I will try my best to post it within a week. Till then, ciao!! :)